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Instrument Flying Handbook
Navigation Systems
Advanced Technologies

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Instrument Flying
Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency
Operations

To Determine Aircraft Position Over an NDB/
Compass Locator:

1. Verify aircraft GPS system integrity monitoring
is functioning properly and indicates satisfactory
integrity.

2. Select the NDB/compass locator facility from the
airborne database. When using an NDB/compass
locator, the facility must he charted and he in the
airborne database. if the facility is not in the airborne
database, pilots are riot authorized to use a facility WP
for this operation.

3. A pilot is over the NDB/compass locator when the
UPS system indicates arrival at the active WP.

To Determine Aircraft Position Over a Fix Made up
of an NDB/Compass Locator Bearing Crossing a
VOR/LOC Course:

1. Verily aircraft GPS system integrity monitoring
is functioning properly and indicates satisfactory
integrity.

2. A fix made up by a crossing NDB/compass locator
bearing is identified by a five-letter fix name. Pilots
may select either the named fix or the NDB/compass
locator facility providing the crossing bearing to
establish the fix as the active GPS WP. When using
an NDB/compass locator, that facility must be charted
and be in the airborne database. If the facility is not
in the airborne database, pilots are not authorized to
use a facility WP for this operation.

3. When selecting the named fix as the active GPS WP,
pilot is over the fix when the GPS system indicates
the pilot is at the WP.

4. When selecting the NDB/compass locator facility
as the active GPS WP, pilots arc over the fix when
the GPS bearing to the active WP is the same as
the charted NDB/compass locator bearing for the
fix flying the prescribed track from the non-GPS
navigation source.

To Hold Over an NDB/Compass Locator:

1. Verify aircraft GPS system integrity monitoring
is functioning properly and indicates satisfactory
integrity.

2. Select the NDB/compass locator facility from the
airborne database as the active WP. When using a
facility as the active WP, the only acceptable facility
is the NDB/compass locator facility, which is charted.
If this facility is not in the airborne database, its use
is not authorized.

3. Select non sequencing (e.g., "HOLD" or "OBS") mode
and the appropriate course in accordance with the
POH/AFM, or supplement.

4. Hold using the GPS system in accordance with the
POH/AFM, or supplement.

IFR Flight Using GPS
Preflight preparations should ensure that the GPS is properly
installed and certified with a current database for the type
of operation. The GPS operation must he conducted in
accordance with the FAA-approved POH/AFM or flight
manual supplement. Flight crewmembers must be thoroughly
familiar with the particular GPS equipment installed in the
aircraft, the receiver operation manual, and the POH/AFM
or flight manual supplement. Unlike ILS and VOR, the
basic operation, receiver presentation to the pilot and some
capabilities of the equipment can vary greatly. Due to these
differences, operation of different brands, or even models
of the same brand of GPS receiver under IFR should not be
attempted without thorough study of the operation of that
particular receiver and installation. Using the equipment in
flight under VFR conditions prior to attempting IFR operation
will allow further familiarization.

Required preflight preparations should include checking
NOTAMs elating to the IFR flight when using GPS as a
supplemental method of navigation. GPS satellite outages are
issued as GPS NOTAMs both domestically and internationally.
Pilots may obtain GPS RAIM availability information
for an airport by specifically requesting GPS aeronautical
information from an automated flight service station
(AFSS) during preflight briefings. GPS RAIN aeronautical
information can be obtained for a 3-hour period: the estimated
time of arrival (ETA), and 1 hour before to 1 hour after the
ETA hour, or a 24-hour time frame for a specific airport. FAA
briefer will provide RAIM information for a period of 1 hour
before to 1 hour after the ETA, unless a specific time frame is
requested by the pilot. If flying a published GPS departure, the
pilot should also request a RAIM prediction for the departure
airport. Some GPS receivers have the capability to predict
RAIM availability. The pilot should also ensure that the
required underlying ground-based navigation facilities and
related aircraft equipment appropriate to the route of flight,
terminal operations, instrument approaches for the destination,
and alternate airports/heliports will be operational for the ETA.
If the required ground-based facilities and equipment will
not be available, the flight should be rerouted, rescheduled,
canceled, or conducted under VFR.

Except for programming and retrieving information from
the GPS receiver, planning the flight is accomplished in a
similar manner to conventional NAVAIDs. Departure WP.
DP, route, STAR, desired approach, IAF, and destination
airport are entered into the GPS receiver according to the
manufacturer's instructions. During preflight, additional
information may be entered for functions such as ETA, fuel
planning, winds aloft, etc.

 
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