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Instrument Flying Handbook
Navigation Systems
Advanced Technologies

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Instrument Flying
Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency
Operations

4. Determining the aircraft position over an NOB/compass
locator.

5. Determining the aircraft position over a fix defined by
an NDB/compass locator bearing crossing a VOR/LOC
course.

6. Holding over an NDB/compass locator.

GPS Substitution for ADF or DME
Using GPS as a substitute for ADF or DME is subject to the
following restrictions:

1. This equipment must be installed in accordance with
appropriate airworthiness installation requirements
and operated within the provisions of the applicable
POH/AFM, or supplement.

2. The required integrity for these operations must be
provided by at least en route RAIM, or equivalent.

3. WPs, fixes, intersections, and facility locations to he
used for these operations must be retrieved from the
GPS airborne database. The database must be current.
If the required positions cannot be retrieved from the
airborne database, the substitution of GPS for ADF
and/or DME is not authorized

4. Procedures must be established for use when RAIM
outages are predicted or occur. This may require the
flight to rely on other approved equipment or require
the aircraft to be equipped with operational NDB and/or
DME receivers. Otherwise, the flight must he rerouted,
delayed, canceled, or conducted under VFR.

5. The CDI must be set to terminal sensitivity (1 NM)
when tracking GPS course guidance in the terminal
area.

6. A non-GPS approach procedure must exist at the
alternate airport when one is required. If the non-GPS
approaches on which the pilot must rely require DME
or ADF, the aircraft must he equipped with DME or
ADF avionics as appropriate.

7. Charted requirements for ADF and/or DME can be met
using the GPS system, except for use as the principal
instrument approach navigation source.

NOTE: The following provides guidance, which is not
specific to any particular aircraft GPS system. For specific
system guidance, refer to the POH/AFM, or supplement, or
contact the system manufacturer.

To Determine Aircraft Position Over a DME Fix:

1. Verify aircraft GPS system integrity monitoring
is functioning properly and indicates satisfactory
integrity.

2. If the fix is identified by a five-letter name, which is
contained in the GPS airborne database, select either
the named fix as the active GPS WP or the facility
establishing the DME fix as the active GPS WP. When
using a facility as the active WP, the only acceptable
facility is the DME facility, which is charted as the one
used to establish the DME fix. If this facility is not in
the airborne database, it is not authorized for use.

3. If the fix is identified by a five-letter name, which is not
contained in the GPS airborne database, or if the fix is
not named, select the facility establishing the DME fix
or another named DME fix as the active GPS WP.

4. When selecting the named fix as the active GPS WP,
a pilot is over the fix when the GPS system indicates
the active WP.

5. If selecting the DME providing facility as the active
GPS WP, a pilot is over the fix when the GPS distance
from the active WP equals the charted DME value, and
the aircraft is established on the appropriate hearing
or course.

To Fly a DME Arc:

1. Verify aircraft GPS system integrity monitoring
is functioning properly and indicates satisfactory
integrity.

2. Select from the airborne database the facility providing
the DME arc as the active GPS WP. The only
acceptable facility is the DME facility on which the arc
is based. If this facility is not in your airborne database.
you are not authorized to perform this operation.

3. Maintain position on the are by reference to the GPS
distance instead of a DME readout.

To Navigate TO or FROM an NDB/Compass Locator:

1. Verify aircraft GPS system integrity monitoring
is functioning properly and indicates satisfactory
integrity.

2. Select the NDB/compass locator Facility from the
airborne database as the active WP. If the chart depicts
the compass locator collocated with a fix of the same
name, use of that fix as the active WP in place of the
compass locator facility is authorized.

3. Select and navigate on the appropriate course to or
from the active WP.

 
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