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Instrument Flying Handbook
Navigation Systems
Traditional Navigation Systems

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

VOR/DME RNAV Rwy 25 Approach (Excerpt).
Figure 7-24. VOR/DME RNAV Rwy 25 Approach (Excerpt).

To fly to a WP using RNAV, observe the following procedure [Figure 7-25]:

1. Select the VOR/DME frequency.

2. Select the RNAV mode.

3. Select the radial of the VOR that passes through the WP (225°').

4. Select the distance from the DME to the WP (12 NM).

. Aircraft/DME/Waypoint Relationship.
Figure 7-25. Aircraft/DME/Waypoint Relationship.

5. Check and confirm all inputs, and center the CDI needle
with the TO indicator showing.

6. Maneuver the aircraft to fly the indicated heading
plus or minus wind correction to keep the CDI needle centered.

7. The CDI needle will indicate distance off course of 1
NM per dot; the DME readout will indicate distance in
NM from the WP; the groundspeed will read closing
speed (knots) to the WP; and the time to station (TTS)
will read time to the WP.

The limitation of this system is the reception volume.
Published approaches have been tested to ensure this is not
a problem. Descents/approaches to airports distant from the
VOR/DME facility may not he possible because, during
the approach, the aircraft may descend below the reception
altitude of the facility at that distance

Long Range Navigation (LORAN)
LORAN uses a network of land-based transmitters to provide
an accurate long-range navigation system. The FAA and the
United States Coast Guard. (USCG) arranged the stations
into chains. The signal from station is a carefully structured
sequence of brief RF pulses centered at 100 kHz. At that
frequency, signals travel considerable distances as ground
waves, from which accurate navigation information is
available. The airborne receiver monitors all of the stations
within the selected chain, then measures the arrival time
difference (TD) between the signals. All of the points having
the same TD from a station pair create a line of position
(LOP). The aircraft position is determined at the intersection
of two or more LOPs. Then the computer converts the
known location to latitude and longitude coordinates.
[Figure 7-26]