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Instrument Flying Handbook
Navigation Systems
Traditional Navigation Systems

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

3. Continue the turn fur approximately 90°. The roll-out
heading will be 055° in a no wind condition.

4. During the last part: of the intercepting turn, monitor
the DME closely. If the arc is being overshot (more
than 1.0 NM), continue through the originally planned
rollout heading. If the arc is being undershot, rollout
of the turn early.

The procedure for intercepting the 10 DME when outbound
is basically the same, the lead point being 10 NM minus 0.5
NM, or 9.5 NM.

When flying a DME arc with wind, it is important to keep a
continuous mental picture of the aircraft's position relative to
the facility. Since the wind-drift correction angle is constantly
changing throughout the arc, wind orientation is important.
In sonic cases, wind can be used in returning to the desired

track, High airspeeds require more pilot attention because of
the higher rate of deviation and correction.

Maintaining the arc is simplified by keeping slightly inside
the curve; thus, the are is turning toward the aircraft and
interception may be accomplished by holding a straight
course. When outside the curve, the arc is "turning away"
and a greater correction is required.

To fly the arc using the VOR CDI, center the CDI needle
upon completion of the 90° turn to intercept the arc. The
aircraft's heading will be found very near the left or right
side (270° or 90° reference points) of the instrument. The
readings at that side location on the instrument will give
primary heading information while on the arc. Adjust the
aircraft heading to compensate for wind and to correct for
distance to maintain the correct arc distance. Recenter the
CDI and note the new primary heading indicated whenever
the CDI gets 2°-4° from center.

Using DME and RMI To Maintain an Arc.
Figure 7-18. Using DME and RMI To Maintain an Arc.