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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using Analog Instrumentation
Straight-and-Level Flight

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Instruments used for Bank Control.
Figure 5-16. Instruments used for Bank Control.

The instrument depicted in Figure 5-17 has a scale pointer
that moves in the same direction of bank shown by the
miniature aircraft. In this case, the aircraft is in a left 15°
bank. Precession errors in this instrument are common
and predictable, but the obvious advantage of the attitude
indicator is an immediate indication of both pitch attitude
and bank attitude in a single glance. Even with the precession
errors associated with many attitude indicators, the quick
attitude presentation requires less visual effort and time for
positive control than other flight instruments.

Bank Interpretation with the Attitude Indicator.
Bank Interpretation with the Attitude Indicator.

Heading Indicator
The bank attitude of an aircraft in coordinated flight is shown
indirectly on the heading indicator, since banking results in
a turn and change in heading. Assuming the same airspeed
in both instances, a rapid movement of the heading indicator
(azimuth card in a directional gyro) indicates a large angle
of bank, whereas slow movement reflects a small angle of
bank. Note the rate of movement of the heading indicator
and compare it to the attitude indicator's degrees of hank.
The attitude indicator's precession error makes a precise
check of heading information necessary in order to maintain
straight flight

When deviations from straight flight are noted on the heading
indicator, correct to the desired heading using a bank angle no
greater than the number of degrees to he turned. In any case,
limit bank corrections to a bank angle no greater than that
required for a standard rate turn. Use of larger bank angles
requires a very high level of proficiency, and normally results
in over controlling and erratic bank control.

Turn Coordinator
The miniature aircraft of the turn coordinator gives an indirect
indication of the bank attitude of the airplane. When the
miniature aircraft is level, the airplane is in straight flight.
When the miniature airplane is aligned with one of the
alignment marks and the aircraft is rolling to the, left or right
the indication represents the roll rate, with the alignment
marks indicating a roll of 3° per second in the direction of
the miniature aircraft. This can be seen in level flight when
a bank is introduced either to the left or the right. The turn
coordinator's indicator will indicate the rolling motion
although there is no turn being made. Conversely, a pedal
input to the right or left causes the aircraft to turn momentarily
about its vertical axis (with no rolling motion) with an
indication of turn on the turn coordinator. After the turn
becomes stabilized and the aircraft is no longer rolling, the
turn coordinator displays the rate of turn with the alignment
marks equaling a turn of 3° per second. The turn coordinator
is able to display both roll and turn parameters because its
electrically powered gyroscope is canted at an angle. As a
result, the turn-and-slip indicator provides both roll and turn
indications. Autopilots in general aviation today use this
instrument, in determining both roll and turn information.
After the completion of a turn, return to straight flight is
accomplished by coordinated aileron and rudder pressure to
level the miniature aircraft. Include the miniature aircraft in
the cross-check and correct for even the smallest deviations
from the desired position. When this instrument is used to
maintain straight flight, control pressures must be applied
very lightly and smoothly.