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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using an Electronic Flight Display
Instrument Takeoff

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Once the aircraft has reached a safe altitude (approximately
100 feet for insufficient runway available for landing should
an engine failure occur) retract the landing gear and flaps
while referencing the ASI and attitude indicator to maintain
the desired pitch. As the configuration is changed, an increase
in aft control pressure is needed in order to maintain the
desired pitch attitude. Smoothly increase the aft control
pressure to compensate for the change in configuration.
Anticipate the changes and increase the rate of cross-cheek.
The airspeed tape and altitude tape increases while the VSI
tape is held constant. Allow the aircraft to accelerate to the
desired climb speed. Once the desired climb speed is reached,
reduce the power to the climb power setting as printed in
the POH/AFM. Trim the aircraft to eliminate any control

Common Errors in Instrument Takeoffs
Common errors associated with the instrument takeoff
include, but are not limited to, the following:

1. Failure to perform an adequate flight deck check
before the takeoff. Pilots have attempted instrument
takeoff with inoperative airspeed indicators (pitot
tube obstructed), controls locked, and numerous
other oversights due to haste or carelessness. It is
imperative to cross-check the ASI as soon as possible.
No airspeed will be indicated until 20 knots of true
airspeed is generated in some systems.

2. Improper alignment on the runway. This may result
from improper brake applications, allowing the
airplane to creep after alignment, or from alignment
with the nosewheel or tailwheel cocked. In any case,
the result is a built-in directional control problem as
the takeoff starts.

3. Improper application of power. Abrupt applications of
power complicate directional control. Power should be
applied in a smooth and continuous manner to arrive
at the takeoff power setting within approximately 3

4. Improper use of brakes. Incorrect seat or rudder pedal
adjustment, with feet in an uncomfortable position,
frequently causes inadvertent application of brakes
and excessive heading changes.

5. Overcontrolling rudder pedals. This fault may be
caused by late recognition of heading changes, tension
on the controls, misinterpretation of the heading
indicator (and correcting in the wrong direction),
failure to appreciate changing effectiveness of rudder
control as the aircraft accelerates, and other factors. If
heading changes are observed and corrected instantly
with small movement of the rudder pedals, swerving
tendencies can he reduced.

6. Failure to maintain attitude after becoming airborne.
if the pilot reacts to seat-of-the-pants sensations when
the airplane lifts off, pitch control is guesswork.
The pilot may either allow excessive pitch or apply
excessive forward-elevator pressure, depending on
the reaction to trim changes.

7. In adequate cross-check. Fixations are likely during the
trim changes, attitude changes, gear and flap retractions,
and power changes. Once an instrument or a control
input is applied, continue the cross-check and note the
effect control during the next cross-check sequence.

8. Inadequate interpretation of instruments. Failure
to understand instrument indications immediately
indicates that further study of the maneuver is

Basic Instrument Flight Patterns
After attaining a reasonable degree of proficiency in basic
maneuvers, apply these skills to the various combinations
of individual maneuvers. The practice flight patterns,
beginning on page 5-30, are directly applicable to operational
instrument flying.