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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using an Electronic Flight Display
Instrument Takeoff

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Instrument Flying
Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency
Operations

3. Fixation is displayed when a pilot focuses far too
much attention on one instrument because he or
she perceives something is wrong or a deviation is
occurring. It is important for the instrument pilot to
remember that a cross-check of several instruments
for corroboration is more valuable than checking a
single instrument.

4. Attempting to recover by sensory sensations other
than sight. Recovery by instinct almost always leads
to erroneous corrections due to the illusions that are
prevalent during instrument flight.

5, Failure to practice basic attitude instrument flying.
When a pilot does not fly instrument approach
procedures or even basic attitude instrument flying
maneuvers for long periods of time, skill levels
diminish. Pilots should avoid flying in IMC if they are
not proficient. They should seek a qualified instructor
to receive additional instruction prior to entry into
IMC.

Instrument Takeoff

The reason for learning to fly by reference to instruments
alone is to expand a pilot's abilities to operate an aircraft
in visibility less than VFR. Another valuable maneuver
to learn is the instrument takeoff. This maneuver requires
the pilot to maneuver the aircraft during the takeoff roll by
reference to flight instruments alone with no outside visual
reference. With practice, this maneuver becomes as routine
as a standard rate turn.

The reason behind practicing instrument takeoffs is to reduce
the disorientation that can occur during the transitional phase
of quickly moving the eyes from the outside references inside
to the flight instruments.

One EFD system currently offers what is trademarked as
synthetic vision. Synthetic vision is a three-dimensional
computer-generated representation of the terrain that lies
ahead of the aircraft. The display shows runways as well
as a depiction of the terrain features based on a GPS terrain
database. Similar to a video game, the display generates a
runway the pilot can maneuver down in order to maintain
directional control. As long as the pilot tracks down the
computer-generated runway, the aircraft will remain aligned
with the actual runway.

Not all EFD systems have such an advanced visioning system.
With all other systems, the pilot needs to revert to the standard
procedures for instrument takeoffs. Each aircraft may require
a modification to the maneuver; therefore, always obtain
training on any new equipment to be used.

In order to accomplish an instrument takeoff, the aircraft
needs to be maneuvered on the centerline of the runway facing
the direction of departure with the nose or tail wheel straight.
Assistance from the instructor may be necessary if the pilot
has been taxiing while wearing a view limiting device. Lock
the tail wheel, if so equipped, and hold the brakes firmly to
prevent the aircraft from creeping. Cross-check the heading
indicator on the PFD with the magnetic compass and adjust
for any deviations noted on the compass card. Set the heading
to the nearest 5° mark closest to the runway heading. This
allows the pilot to quickly detect any deviations from the
desired heading and allows prompt corrective actions during
the takeoff roll. Using the omnibearing select (OBS) mode
on the GPS, rotate the OBS selector until the needle points
to the runway heading. This adds additional situational
awareness during the takeoff roll. Smoothly apply power to
generate sufficient rudder authority for directional control.
Release the brakes and continue to advance the power to the
takeoff setting.

As soon as the brakes are released, any deviation in heading
needs to he corrected immediately. Avoid using brakes to
control direction as this increases the takeoff roll, as well as
provides the potential of overcontrolling the aircraft.

Continuously cross-check the ASI and the heading indicator
as the aircraft accelerates. As the aircraft approaches 15-25
knots below the rotation speed, smoothly apply aft elevator
pressure to increase the pitch attitude to the desired takeoff
attitude (approximately 70 for most small airplanes). With
the pitch attitude held constant, continue to cross-check the
flight instruments and allow the aircraft to fly off of the
runway. Do not: pull the aircraft off of the runway. Pulling
the aircraft off of the runway imposes left turning tendencies
due to P-Factor, which will yaw the aircraft to the left and
destabilize the takeoff.

Maintain the desired pitch and bank attitudes by referencing
the attitude indicator and cross-check the VSI tape for an
indication of a positive rate of climb. Take note of the magenta
6-second altimeter trend indicator. The trend should show
positive. Barring turbulence, all trend indications should
he stabilized. The airspeed trend indicator should not be
visible at this point if the airspeed is being held constant. An
activation of the airspeed trend indicator shows that the pitch
attitude is not being held at the desired value and, therefore,
the airspeed is changing. The desired performance is to be
climbing at a constant airspeed and vertical speed rate. Use
the ASI as the primary instrument for the pitch indication.

 
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