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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using an Electronic Flight Display

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

AHRS Unit Failed.
Figure 5-73. AHRS Unit Failed.

Figure 5-74 depicts an AHRS and ADC failure. In this failure
scenario, there are no indications of the aircraft's attitude. The
manufacturer recommends wining on the autopilot, which is
simply a wing leveler.

With a failure of the primary instrumentation on the PFD, the
only references available are the stand-by instruments. The
standby instrumentation consists of an analog ASI, attitude
indicator, altimeter, and magnetic compass. There is no
standby turn coordinator installed.

In extreme nose-high or nose-low pitch attitudes, as well
as high bank angles, the analog attitude indicator has the
potential to tumble, rendering it unusable.

Autopilot Usage

The autopilot is equipped with inputs from a turn coordinator
installed behind the MFD screen. This turn coordinator is
installed solely for the use of the autopilot to facilitate the
roll mode. Roll mode, which is simply a wing leveler. This
protection will always be available, barring a failure of the
turn coordinator (to aid the pilot if the aircraft attains an
unusual attitude).

NOTE: The pilot is not able to gain access to the turn
coordinator. This instrument is installed behind the MFD
panel. [Figure 5-75]

Most EFD equipped aircraft are coming from the factory
with autopilots installed. However, the purchaser of the
aircraft can specify if an autopilot is to he installed. Extreme

caution should he utilized when flying an EFD equipped
aircraft without an autopilot in IMC with an AHRS and
ADC failure.

The autopilot should be utilized to reduce workload, which
affords the pilot more time to monitor the flight. Utilization
of the autopilot also decreases the chances of entry into an
unusual attitude.

Flying an EFD equipped aircraft without: the use of an
autopilot has been shown to increase workload and decrease
situational awareness for pilots first learning to flying the
new system.

Common Errors Leading to Unusual Attitudes
The following errors have the potential to disrupt a pilot's
situational awareness and lead to unusual attitudes.

1. Improper trimming techniques. A failure to keep the
aircraft trimmed for level flight at all times can turn
a momentary distraction into an emergency situation
if the pilot stops cross-checking.

2. Poor crew resource management (CRM) skills. Failure
to perform all single-pilot resource management
duties efficiently. A major cause of CRM related
accidents comes from the failure of the pilot to
maintain an organized flight deck. Items that are
being utilized for the flight portion should be neatly
arranged for easy access. A disorganized flight deck
can lead to a distraction that causes the pilot to cease
cross-checking the instruments long enough to enter
an usual attitude.