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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using an Electronic Flight Display
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Instrument Flying
Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency
Operations

Unusual Attitude Recovery Protection
Unusual attitudes are some of the most hazardous situations
for a pilot to be in. Without proper recovery training
on instrument interpretation and aircraft control, a pilot
can quickly aggravate an abnormal flight attitude into a
potentially fatal accident.

Analog gauges require the pilot to scan between instruments
to deduce the aircraft attitude. Individually, these gauges
lack the necessary information needed for a successful
recovery.

EFDs have additional features to aid in recognition and
recovery from unusual flight attitudes. The PFD displays
all the flight instruments on one screen. Each instrument is
superimposed over a full-screen representation of the attitude
indicator. With this configuration, the pilot no longer needs
to transition from one instrument to another.

The new unusual attitude recovery protection allows die pilot
to be able to quickly determine the aircraft's attitude and make
a safe, proper and prompt recovery. Situational awareness is
increased by the introduction of the large full-width artificial
horizon depicted on the PFD. This now allows for the attitude
indicator to he in view during all portions of the scan.

One problem with analog gauges is that the attitude indicator
displays a complete blue or brown segment when the pitch
attitude is increased toward 900 nose-up or nose-down.

With the EFDs, the attitude indicator is designed in retain a
portion of both sky and land representation at all times. This
improvement allows the pilot to always know the quickest
way to return to the horizon. Situational awareness is greatly
increased.

NOTE: The horizon line starts moving downward at
approximately 47° pitch up. From this point on, the brown
segment will remain visible to show the pilot the quickest
way to return to the level pitch attitude. [Figure 5-69]

NOTE: The horizon line starts moving upward at
approximately 27° pitch down. From this point on, the blue
segment will remain visible to show the pilot the quickest
way to return to the level pitch attitude. [Figure 5-70]

It is imperative to understand that the white line on the
attitude indicator is the horizon line. The break between the
blue and brown symbols is only a reference and should not
be thought of as the artificial horizon.

Another important advancement is the development of the
unusual attitude recovery protection that is built into the PFD
software and made capable by the AHRS. In the case of a nose-
high unusual attitude, the unusual attitude recovery protection
displays red chevrons, which point back to the horizon line.

Unusual Attitude Recovery Protection.
Figure 5-69. Unusual Attitude Recovery Protection. Note the brown horizon line is visible at the bottom.
 
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