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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using an Electronic Flight Display

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Performing the Maneuver
To cater a steep turn to the left, roll into a coordinated 45°
bank turn to the left. An advantage that glass panel displays
have over analog instrumentation is a45° bank indication on
the roll scale. This additional index on the roll scale allows
the pilot to precisely roll into die desired hank angle instead
of having to approximate it as is necessary with analog
instrumentation. [Figure 5-68]

Steep Left Turn.
Figure 5-68. Steep Left Turn.

As soon as the bank angle increases from level flight, the
vertical component of lift begins to decrease. If the vertical
component of lift is allowed to continue to decrease, a
pronounced loss of altitude is indicated on the altimeter along
with the VSI tape, as well as the altitude trend indicator.
Additionally, the airspeed will begin to increase due to
the lowered pitch attitude. It is very important to have a
comprehensive scan developed prior to training in steep
turns. Utilization of all of the trend indicators, as well the
VSI, altimeter, and ASI, is essential in learning to fly steep
turns by reference to instruments alone.

In order to avoid a loss of altitude, the pilot begins to
slowly increase back pressure on the control yoke in order
to increase the pitch attitude. The pitch change required is
usually no more than 3° to 5°, depending on the type of
aircraft. As the pilot increases back pressure, the angle of
attack increases, thus increasing the vertical component of
lift. When a deviation in altitude is indicated, proper control
force corrections need to be made. During initial training
of steep turns, pilots have a tendency to over bank. Over
banking is when the bank angle exceeds 50°. As the outboard
wing begins to travel faster through the air it will begin to
generate a greater and greater differential in lift compared
to the inboard wing. As the bank angle continues to progress
more and more steeply past 45°, the two components of lift
(vertical and horizontal) become inversely proportionate.

Once the angle has exceeded 45°, the horizontal component
of lift is now the greater force, if altitude should continue to
decrease and the pilot only applies back yoke pressure, the
aircraft's turn radius begins to tighten due to the increased
horizontal force. if aft control pressure continues to increase,
there will come a point where the loss of the vertical
component of lift and aerodynamic wing loading prohibits
the nose of the aircraft from being raised. Any increase in
pitch only tightens the turning radius.

The key to successfully performing a steep turn by reference
to instruments alone is the thorough understanding of the
aerodynamics involved, as well as a quick and reliable cross-
check. The pilot should utilize the trim to avoid holding
control forces for any period of time. With time and practice,
a flight instructor can demonstrate how to successfully fly
steep turns with and without the use of trim. Once the aircraft
is trimmed for the maneuver, accomplishing the maneuver
will be virtually a hands-off effort. This allows additional
lime for cross-checking and interpreting the instruments.

It is imperative when correcting for a deviation in altitude,
that the pilot modify the hank angle ±5° in order to vary the
vertical component of lift, not just adjust back pressure. These
two actions should be accomplished simultaneously.

During the recovery from steep turns to straight-and-level
flight, aft control forces must he varied with the power control
to arrive hack at entry altitude, heading and airspeed.


I. Perform clearing turns.

2. Roll left into a 45° bank turn and immediately begin to
increase the pitch attitude by approximately 3° to 5°.

3. As the bank rolls past 30°, increase power to maintain
the entry airspeed.

4. Apply trim to eliminate any aft control wheel forces.

5. Begin roiling out of the steep turn approximately 20°
prior to the desired heading.

6. Apply forward control pressure and place the pitch
attitude in the level cruise pitch attitude.

7. Reduce power to the entry power setting to maintain
the desired airspeed.

8. Re-trim the aircraft as soon as practical or continue
into a right hand steep turn and continue from step 3.

9. Once the maneuver is complete, establish cruise flight
and accomplish all appropriate checklist items.