| Home | Privacy | Contact |

Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using an Electronic Flight Display

| First | Previous | Next | Last |

Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Standard Rate Turn-Constant Airspeed.
Figure 5-67. Standard Rate Turn-Constant Airspeed.

Common Errors

1. One common error associated with standard rate turns
is due to pilot inability to hold the appropriate bank
angle that equates to a standard rate. The primary bank
instrument during the turn is the turn rate indicator;
however the bank angle varies slightly. With an
aggressive cross-check, a pilot should he able to
minimize errors arising from over or under banking.

2. Another error normally encountered during standard
rate turns is inefficient or lack of adequate cross-
checking. Pilots need to establish an aggressive
cross-check in order to detect and eliminate all
deviations from altitude, airspeed, and hank angle
during a maneuver.

3. Fixation is a major error associated with attitude
instrument flying in general. Pilots training for their
instrument rating lend to focus on what they perceive
to he the most important task at hand and abandon
their cross-check by applying all of their attention to
the turn rate indicator. A modified radial scan works
well to provide the pilot with adequate scanning of all
instrumentation during the maneuver.

Turns to Predetermined Headings
Turning the aircraft is one of the most basic maneuvers that a
pilot learns during initial flight training. Learning to control
the aircraft, maintaining coordination, and smoothly rolling
out on a desired heading are all keys to proficient attitude
instrument flying.

EFDs allow the pilot to better utilize all instrumentation during
all phases of attitude instrument flying by consolidating all
traditional instrumentation onto the PFD. The increased size

of the attitude indicator, which stretches the entire width of
the PFD, allows the pilot to maintain better pitch control
while the introduction of the turn late indicator positioned
directly on the compass rose aids the pilot in determining
when to begin a roll-out for the desired heading.

When determining what hank angle to utilize when making a
heading change, a general rule states that for a small heading
change, do not use a bank angle that is greater than the total
number of degrees of change needed. For instance, if a bending
change o120° is needed, a hank angle of not more than 20° is
required. Another rule of thumb that better defines the bank
angle is half the total number of degrees of heading change
required, but never greater than standard rate. The exact bank
angle that equates to a standard rate turn varies due to hue

With this in mind and the angle of bank calculated, the next
step is determining when to start the roll-nut process. For

An aircraft begins a turn from a heading of 0300 to a heading
of 120°. With the given airspeed, a standard rate turn has
yielded a 15° bank. The pilot wants to begin a smooth
coordinated roll-out to the desired heading when the heading
indicator displays approximately 112°. The necessary
calculations are:

15° bank (standard rate) ÷ 2 = 7.5°
l20° - 7.5°= 112.5°

By utilizing this technique the pilot is better able to judge if
any modifications need to be made to the amount of lead once
the amount of over or undershooting is established.