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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using an Electronic Flight Display
Straight-and-Level flight

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

fixated on pitch and altitude
Figure 5.62. The pilot has fixated on pitch and altitude, leaving bank indications unattended. Note the trend line to the left.

9. Failure to note the cause of a previous heading error
and thus repeating the same error. For example, the
airplane is out of trim, with a left wing low tendency.
Repeated corrections for a slight left turn are made,
yet trim is ignored.

Power errors usually result from but are not limited to the
following errors:

1.. Failure to become familiar with the aircraft's specific
power settings and pitch attitudes.

2. Abrupt use of throttle.

3. Failure to lead the airspeed when making power
changes, climbs or descents.

Example: When leveling off from a descent, increase
the power in order to avoid the airspeed from bleeding
off due to the decrease in momentum of the aircraft.
If the pilot waits to bring in the power until after the
aircraft is established in the level pitch attitude, the
aircraft will have already decreased below the speed
desired which will require additional adjustment in
the power setting.

4. Fixation on airspeed tape or manifold pressure
indications during airspeed changes, resulting in
erratic control of airspeed, power, as well as pitch and
bank attitudes.

Trim errors usually result from the following faults:

1. Improper adjustment of seat or rudder pedals for
comfortable position of legs and feet. Tension in the
ankles make it difficult to relax rudder pressures.

2. Confusion about the operation of trim devices, which
differ among various airplane types. Some trim wheels
are aligned appropriately with the airplane's axes;
others are not. Some rotate in a direction contrary to

3. Failure to understand the principles of trim and that
the aircraft is being trimmed for airspeed, not a pitch

4. Faulty sequence in trim techniques. Trim should be
utilized to relieve control pressures, not to change
pitch attitudes. The proper trim technique has the pilot
holding the control wheel first and then trimming to
relieve any control pressures. Continuous trim changes
will be required as the power setting is changed.
Utilize the trim continuously, but in small amounts.