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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using an Electronic Flight Display
Straight-and-Level flight

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Attitude Indicator.
Figure 5-52. Attitude Indicator.

The roll pointer indicates the direction and degree of bank.
[Figure 5-53] The roll pointer is aligned with the aircraft
symbol. The roll pointer indicates the angle of the lateral axis
of the aircraft compared to the natural horizon. The slip/skid
indicator will show if the longitudinal axis of the aircraft is
aligned with the relative wind, which is coordinated flight. With
the roll index and the slip/skid indicator aligned, any deflection,
either right or left of the toll index will cause the aircraft to turn
in that direction. With the small graduations on the roll scale, it
is easy to determine the bank angle within approximately 1°. In
coordinated flight, if the roll index is aligned with the roll pointer,
the aircraft is achieving straight flight.

An advantage of EFDs is the elimination of the precession
error. Precession error in analog gauges is caused by forces
being applied to a spinning gyro. With the new solid state
instruments, precession error has been eliminated.

Since the attitude indicator is capable of showing precise
pitch and hank angles, the only time that the attitude indicator
will be a primary instrument is when attempting to fly at a
specific hank angle or pitch angle. Other times, the attitude
instrument can be thought of as a control instrument,

Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)

The HSI is a rotating 360° compass card that indicates
magnetic heading. The HSI is the only instrument that is
capable of showing exact headings. The magnetic compass
can be used as a backup instrument in case of an HSI failure;
however, due to erratic, unstable movements, it is more likely
to be used by a supporting instrument.

In order for the pilot to achieve the desired rate of change,
it is important for him or her to understand the relationship
between the rate at which the HSI changes heading displays
and the amount of bank angle required to meet that rate of

Attitude Indicator Showing a 15° left batik,
Figure 5-53. Attitude Indicator Showing a 15° left batik,

change. A very small rate of heading change means the bank
angle is small, and it will take more time to deviate from the
desired straight flight path. A larger rate of heading change
means a greater bank angle will happen at a faster rate.

Heading Indicator
The heading indicator is die large black box with a white
number that indicates the magnetic heading of the aircraft.
[Figure 5-54] The aircraft heading is displayed to die nearest
degree. When this number begins to change, the pilot should
be aware that straight flight is no longer being achieved.

Turn Rate Indicator
The turn rate indicator gives an indirect indication of bank.
it is a magenta trend indicator capable of displaying half-
standard as well as standard rate turns to both the left and
right. [Figure 5-54] The turn indicator is capable of indicating
turns up to 4° per second by extending the magenta line
outward from the standard rate mark. If the rate of turn has
exceeded 4° per second, the magenta line cannot precisely
indicate where the heading will be in the next 6 seconds, the
magenta line freezes and an arrowhead will be displayed. This
alerts the pilot to the fact that the normal range of operation
has been exceeded.

Slip/Skid and Turn Rate Indicator.
Figure 5-54. Slip/Skid and Turn Rate Indicator.