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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using an Electronic Flight Display
Straight-and-Level flight

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Instrument Flying
Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency
Operations

Straight-and-Level flight

Pitch Control
The pitch attitude of an airplane is the angle between the
longitudinal axis of the airplane and the actual horizon,
In level flight, the pitch attitude varies with airspeed and
load. For training purposes, the latter factor can normally
be disregarded in small airplanes. At a constant airspeed,
there is only one specific pitch attitude for level flight. At
slow cruise speeds, the level flight attitude is nose-high with
indications as in Figure 5-47, at fast cruise speeds, the level
flight attitude is nose-low. [Figure 5-48] Figure 5-49 shows
the indications for the attitude at normal cruise speeds.

Pitch Attitude and Airspeed in Level Plight, Slow Cruise Speed.
Figure 5-47. Pitch Attitude and Airspeed in Level Plight, Slow Cruise Speed.

The instruments that directly or indirectly indicate pitch on
the Primary flight Display (PFD) are the attitude indicator,
altimeter, vertical speed indicator (VSI), airspeed indicator
(ASI), and both airspeed and altitude trend indicators.

Attitude Indicator
The attitude indicator gives the pilot a direct indication of
the pitch attitude. The increased size of the attitude display
on the LED system greatly increases situational awareness
for the pilot. Most attitude indicators span the entire width
of the PFD screen.

The aircraft pitch attitude is controlled by changing the
deflection of the elevator. As the pilot pulls back on the
control yoke causing the elevator to rise, the yellow chevron
will begin to show a displacement up from the artificial
horizon line. This is caused by the AHRS unit sensing the
changing angle between the longitudinal plane of the earth
and the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.

The attitude indicator displayed on the PFD screen is a
representation of outside visual cues. Rather than rely on
the natural horizon visible during visual flight rules (VFR)
flight, the pilot must rely on the artificial horizon of the
PFD screen.

During normal cruise airspeed, the point of the yellow
chevron (aircraft symbol) will he positioned on the artificial
horizon. Unlike conventional attitude indicators, the LED
attitude indicator does not allow for manipulating the position
of the chevron in relationship to the artificial horizon. The
position is fixed and therefore will always display the pitch
angle as calculated by the AHRS unit.

Pitch Attitude Decreasing and Airspeed Increasing Indicates Need to Increase Pitch.
Figure 5-48. Pitch Attitude Decreasing and Airspeed Increasing Indicates Need to Increase Pitch.
 
5-34