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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using Analog Instrumentation
Basic Instrument Flight Patterns

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Instrument Flying
Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency
Operations

Standard Procedure Turn
Figure 5-42. Standard Procedure Turn (Entire Pattern in Level
Flight).

3. At point C, turn 225° right (using a standard rate turn)
which will provide a heading of 180°. The timing is
such that in a no wind environment, tile pilot will be
aligned with the final approach course of 180° at D.
Wind conditions, however must be considered during
the execution of the procedure turn. Compensating
for wind may result in changes to outbound time,
procedure turn heading and/or time and minor changes
in the inbound turn.

80/260 Procedure Turn

1. Start timing at point A (usually identified on approach
procedures by a fix). For example, fly outbound on a
heading of 360° for 2 minutes. [Figure 5-43]

80/260 Procedure Turn
Figure 5-43. 80/260 Procedure Turn (Entire Pattern in Level
Flight).

2. At B, enter a left standard rate turn of 80° to a heading
of 280°.

3. At the completion of the 80° turn to 280° (Point C),
immediately turn right 260°, rolling-out on a heading
of 180° (Point D) and also the reciprocal of the entry
heading.

Teardrop Patterns
There are three typical teardrop procedure turns. A 30°, 20°,
and a 10° teardrop pattern. The below steps indicate actions
for all three starting on a heading of 360°. [Figure 5-44]

1. At point B (after stabilizing on the outbound course)
turn left:
• 30° to a heading of 330° and time for 1 minute
• 20° to a heading of 340° and time for 2 minutes
• 10° to a heading of 350° and time for 3 minutes

2. After the appropriate time above (Point C), make a
standard rate turn to the right for:

o 30° teardrop-210° to the final course heading
of 180° (Point D)

• 20° teardrop-200° to the final course heading
of 180° (Point D)

• 10° teardrop-190° to tile final course heading
of 180° (Point D)

By using the different teardrop patterns, a pilot is afforded the
ability to manage time more efficiently. For instance, a 10°
pattern for 3 minutes provides about three times the distance
(and time) than a 30° pattern. Pattern selection should be
based upon an individual assessment of the procedure turn
requirements to include wind, complexity, the individual
preparedness, etc.

Teardrop Pattern
Figure 5-44. Teardrop Pattern (Entire Pattern in. Level Flight).

 
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