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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using Analog Instrumentation
Basic Instrument Flight Patterns

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

5. Overcontrolling rudder pedals. This fault may he
caused by late recognition of heading changes, tension
on the controls, misinterpretation of the heading
indicator (and correcting in the wrong direction),
failure to appreciate changing effectiveness of rudder
control as the aircraft accelerates, and other factors. If
heading changes are observed and corrected instantly
with small movement of the rudder pedals, swerving
tendencies can he reduced.

6. Failure to maintain attitude after becoming airborne.
If the pilot reacts to seat-of-the-pants sensations when
(the airplane lifts off, pitch control is guesswork.
The pilot may either allow excessive pitch or apply
excessive forward elevator pressure, depending on the
reaction to trim changes.

7. Inadequate cross-check. Fixations are likely during trim
changes, attitude changes, gear and flap retractions,
and power changes. Once an instrument or a control
input is applied, continue the cross-check and note the
effect during the next cross-check sequence.

8. Inadequate interpretation of instruments. Failure to
understand instrument indications immediately indicates
that further study of the maneuver is necessary.

Basic Instrument Flight Patterns

Flight patterns are basic maneuvers, flown by sole reference
to the instruments rather than outside visual clues, for the
purpose of practicing basic attitude flying. The patterns
simulate maneuvers encountered on instrument flights
such as holding patterns procedure turns, and approaches.
After attaining a reasonable degree of proficiency in basic
maneuvers, apply these skills to the various combinations of
individual maneuvers. The following practice flight patterns
are directly applicable to operational instrument flying.

Racetrack Pattern

1. Time 3 minutes straight-and-level flight from A to B.
[Figure 5-41] During this interval, reduce airspeed to
the holding speed appropriate for the aircraft.

2. Start a 1800 standard rate turn to the right at B. Roll-out.
at C on the reciprocal of the heading originally used
at A.

3. Time a 1 minute straight:-and-level flight from C to D.

4. Start a 180° standard rate turn to the right at D, rolling-
out on the original heading.

5. Fly 1 minute on the original heading, adjusting
the outbound leg so that the inbound segment is 1

Racetrack Pattern (Entire Pattern in Level Flight).
Figure 5-41. Racetrack Pattern (Entire Pattern in Level Flight).

NOTE: This pattern is an exercise combining use of the clock
with basic maneuvers.

Procedure Turn
A procedure turn is a maneuver that facilitates:

A reversal in flight direction.

Descents from an initial approach fix or assigned
altitude to a permissible altitude (usually the procedure
turn altitude).

An interception of the inbound course at a sufficient
distance allowing the aircraft to become aligned with
the final approach.

Procedure turn types include the 45° turn, the 80/260 turn, and
the teardrop turn. All of these turns are normally conducted no
more than 10 nautical miles (NM) from the primary airport.
The procedure turn altitude generally provides a minimum
of 1,000' obstacle clearance in the procedure turn area (not
necessarily within the 10 NM arc around the primary airport).
Turns may have to be increased or decreased but should not
exceed 30° of a bank angle.

Standard 45° Procedure Turn

1. Start timing at point A (usually identified on approach
procedures by a fix). For example, fly outbound on a
heading of 360° for a given time (2 minutes, in this
example). [Figure 5-42]

2. After flying outbound for 2 minutes (point B), turn left
45° to a heading of 315° using a standard rate turn.
After roll-out and stabilizing, fly this new heading
of 315° for 40 seconds and the aircraft will be at the
approximate position of C.