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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using Analog Instrumentation
Straight-and-Level Flight

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

To practice pitch control for level flight using only the
attitude indicator, use the following exercise. Restrict the
displacement of the horizon bar to a one-half bar width, a
bar width up or down, then a one-and-one-half bar width,
One-half, one, and one-and-one-half bar width nose-high
attitudes are shown in Figures 5-4. 5-5, and 5-6.

An instructor pilot can demonstrate these normal pitch
corrections and compare the indications on the attitude
indicator with the airplane's position to the natural horizon.

Pitch attitude changes for corrections to level flight by reference
to instruments are much smaller than those commonly used
for visual flight. With the airplane correctly trimmed for level
flight, the elevator displacement and the control pressures
necessary to effect these standard pitch changes are usually
very slight. The following are a few helpful hints to help
determine how much elevator control pressure is required.

First, a tight grip on the controls makes it difficult to feel
control pressure changes. Relaxing and learning to control
the aircraft usually takes considerable conscious effort during
the early stages of instrument training.

Second, make smooth and small pitch changes with positive
pressure. With practice, a pilot can make these small pitch
corrections up or down, "freezing" (holding constant) the
one-half, full, and one-and-one-half bar widths on the
attitude indicator.

Third, with the airplane properly trimmed for level flight.,
momentarily release all pressure on the elevator control
when becoming aware of tenseness. This is a reminder that
the airplane is stable; except under turbulent conditions, it
will maintain level flight if left alone. Even when no control
change is called for, it will he difficult to resist the impulse
to move the controls. This may be one of the most difficult
initial training problems in instrument flight.

At constant power, any deviation from level flight (except
in turbulent air) is the result of a pitch change. Therefore,
the altimeter gives an indirect indication of the pitch attitude
in level flight, assuming constant power. Since the altitude
should remain constant when the airplane is in level flight,
any deviation from the desired altitude signals the need for a
pitch change. if the aircraft is gaining altitude, the nose must
be lowered. [Figures 5-7 and 5-8]

One-Half Bar Width
Figure 5-4. Pitch Correction for Level Flight, One-Half Bar Width.

One Bar Width.
Figure 5-5. Pitch Correction for Level Flight. One Bar Width.

One-and-One-Half Bar Width
Figure 5.6. Pitch Correction for Level Flight, One-and-One-Half Bar Width.