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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using Analog Instrumentation
Unusual Attitudes and Recoveries

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Unusual Attitude Nose-Low,

Nose-Low Attitudes
If the airspeed is increasing, or is above the desired airspeed,
reduce power to prevent excessive airspeed and loss of
altitude, Correct the bank attitude with coordinated aileron
and rudder pressure to straight flight by referring to the turn
coordinator. Raise the nose to level flight attitude by applying
smooth back elevator pressure. All components of control
should he changed simultaneously for a smooth, proficient
recovery. However, during initial training a positive,
confident recovery should be made by the numbers, in the
sequence given above. A very important point to remember
is that the instinctive reaction to a nose-down attitude is to
pull back on the elevator control.

After initial control has been applied, continue with a
fast cross-check for possible overcontrolling, since the
necessary initial control pressures may be large. As the rate
of movement of altimeter and ASI needles decreases, the
attitude is approaching level flight. When the needles stop
and reverse direction, the aircraft is passing through level
flight. As the indications of the ASI, altimeter, and turn
coordinator stabilize, incorporate the attitude indicator into
the cross-check.

The attitude indicator and turn coordinator should be checked
to determine bank attitude and then corrective aileron
and rudder pressures should be applied. The ball should
be centered. If it is not, skidding and slipping sensations
can easily aggravate disorientation and retard recovery. If
entering the unusual attitude from an assigned altitude (either
by an instructor or by air traffic control (ATC) if operating
under instrument flight rules (IFR)), return to the original
altitude after stabilizing in straight-and-level flight.

Common Errors in Unusual Attitudes
Common errors associated with unusual attitudes include
the following faults:

1. Failure to keep the airplane properly trimmed. A flight
deck interruption when holding pressures can easily
lead to inadvertent entry into unusual attitudes.

2 Disorganized flight deck. Hunting for charts, logs,
computers, etc., can seriously distract attention from
the instruments,

3. Slow cross-check and fixations. The impulse is to
stop and stare when noting an instrument discrepancy
unless a pilot has trained enough to develop the skill
required for immediate recognition.