| Home | Privacy | Contact |

Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using Analog Instrumentation

| First | Previous | Next | Last |

Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Until control technique is very smooth frequent cross-check
of the attitude indicator is essential to prevent overcontrolling
and to provide approximate bank angles appropriate to the
changing airspeeds.

Common Errors in Turns

Pitch errors result from the following faults:

  1. Preoccupation with bank control during turn entry
    and recovery. if S seconds are required to roll into a
    turn, check the pitch instruments as bank pressures
    are initiated. If bank control pressure and rate of bank
    change are consistent, a sense of the time required
    for an attitude change will be developed. During the
    interval, check pitch, power and trim as well as
    bank controlling the total attitude instead of one
    factor at a time.
  2. Failure to understand or remember the need for
    changing the pitch attitude as the vertical lift
    component changes, resulting in consistent loss of
    altitude during entries.
  3. Changing the pitch attitude before it is necessary. This
    fault is very likely if a cross-check is slow and rate
    of entry too rapid. The error occurs during the turn
    entry due to a mechanical and premature application
    of back-elevator control pressure.
  4. Overcontrolling the pitch changes. This fault
    commonly occurs with the previous error.
  5. Failure to properly adjust the pitch attitude as the
    vertical lift component increases during the roll-out,
    resulting in consistent gain in altitude on recovery to
  6. Failure to trim during (urn entry and following turn
    recovery (if turn is prolonged).
  7. Failure to maintain straight-and-level cross-check
    after roll-out. This error commonly follows a perfectly
    executed turn.
  8. Erratic rates of hank change on entry and recovery,
    resulting from failure to cross-check the pitch
    instruments with a consistent technique appropriate
    to the changes in lift.


Bank and heading errors result from the following faults:

  1. Overcontrolling, resulting in overbanking upon turn
    entry, overshooting and undershooting headings, as
    well as aggravated pitch, airspeed, and trim errors.
  2. Fixation on a single hank instrument. On a 90° change
    of heading, for example, leave the heading indicator
    out of the cross-check for approximately 20 seconds
    after establishing a standard rate two, since at 3°
    per second the turn will not approach the lead point
    until that time has elapsed. Make the cross-check
    selective, checking only what needs to be checked at
    the appropriate time.
  3. Failure to check for precession of the horizon bar
    following recovery from a turn. If the heading
    indicator shows a change in heading when the attitude
    indicator shows level flight, the airplane is turning. If
    the ball is centered, the attitude gyro has precessed;
    if the ball is not centered, the airplane may be in a
    slipping or skidding turn. Center the ball with rudder
    pressure, check the attitude indicator and heading
    indicator, stop the heading change if it continues, and
  4. Failure to use the proper degree of bank for the amount
    of heading change desired. Roiling into a 20° bank
    for a heading change of 10° will normally overshoot
    the heading. Use the bank attitude appropriate to the
    amount of heading change desired.
  5. Failure to remember the heading to which die aircraft
    is being turned. This fault is likely when rushing the
  6. Turning in the wrong direction, due to misreading or
    misinterpreting the heading indicator, or to confusion
    regarding the location of points on the compass. Turn
    in the shortest direction to reach a given heading,
    unless there is a specific reason to turn the long way
    around. Study the compass rose and visualize at least~
    the positions of the eight major points around the
    azimuth. A number of methods can be used to make
    quick computations for heading changes. For example,
    to turn from a heading of 305° to a heading of 110°,
    would a pilot turn right or left for die shortest way
    around? Subtracting 200 from 305 and adding 20,
    gives 125° as the reciprocal of 305°; therefore, execute
    the turn to the right. Likewise, to figure the reciprocal
    of a heading less than 180°, add 200 and subtract 20.
    Computations are done more quickly using multiples
    of 100s and 10s than by adding or subtracting 180°
    from the actual heading; therefore, the method
    suggested above may save time and confusion.