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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using Analog Instrumentation
Turns

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Instrument Flying
Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency
Operations

During recovery from steep turns to straight-and-level
flight, elevator and power control must be coordinated with
bank control in proportion to the changes in aerodynamic
forces. Back elevator pressures must be released and power
decreased. The common errors associated with steep turns are
the same as those discussed later in this section. Remember,
errors are more exaggerated, more difficult to correct, and
more difficult to analyze unless rates of entry and recovery
are consistent with the level of proficiency in the three basic
instrument flying skills.

Climbing and Descending Turns
To execute climbing and descending turns, combine the
technique used in straight climbs and descents with the various
turn techniques. The aerodynamic factors affecting lift and
power control must be considered in determining power
settings, and the ate of cross-check and interpretation must he
increased to enable control of bank as well as pitch changes.

Change of Airspeed During Turns
Changing airspeed during turns is an effective maneuver
For increasing proficiency in all three basic instrument
skills. Since the maneuver involves simultaneous changes
in all components of control, proper execution requires
rapid cross-check and interpretation as well as smooth
control Proficiency in the maneuver will also contribute
to confidence in the instruments during attitude and power
changes involved in more complex maneuvers. Pitch and
power control techniques are the same as those used during
changes in airspeed in straight-and-level flight.

The angle of bank necessary for a given rate of (urn is
proportional to the true airspeed. Since the turns are executed
at a standard rate, the angle of bank must be varied in direct
proportion to the airspeed change in order to maintain a
constant rate of turn. During a reduction of airspeed, decrease
the angle of bank and increase the pitch attitude to maintain
altitude and a standard rate turn.

The altimeter and turn coordinator indications should remain
constant throughout the turn. The altimeter is primary for
pitch control and the miniature aircraft of the turn coordinator
is primary for bank control. The manifold pressure gauge (or
tachometer) is primary for power control while the airspeed
is changing. As the airspeed approaches the new indication,
the ASI becomes primary for power control.

Two methods of changing airspeed in turns may be used. In the
first method, airspeed is changed after the turn is established.
[Figure 5-38] In the second method, the airspeed change is
initiated simultaneously with the turn entry. The first method
is easier, hut regardless of the method used, the rate of cross-
check must be increased as power is reduced. As the airplane
decelerates, check the altimeter and VSI for necessary pitch
changes and the bank instruments for required bank changes
if the miniature aircraft of the turn coordinator indicates a
deviation from the desired deflection, adjust the bank. Adjust
pitch attitude to maintain altitude. When approaching the
desired airspeed, pitch attitude becomes primary for power
control and the manifold pressure gauge (or tachometer) is
adjusted to maintain the desired airspeed. Trim is important
throughout the maneuver to relieve control pressures.

Change of Airspeed During Turn.
Figure 5-38. Change of Airspeed During Turn.
 
5-24