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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using Analog Instrumentation

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Enter a steep turn in the same way as a shallower turn, but
prepare to cross-check rapidly as the turn steepens. Because
of the greatly reduced vertical lift component, pitch control
is usually the most difficult aspect of this maneuver. Unless
immediately noted and corrected with a pitch increase, the
loss of vertical lift results in rapid movement of the altimeter,
vertical speed, and airspeed needles. The faster the rate of
bank change, the more suddenly the lift changes occur. If
a cross-cheek is fast enough to note the immediate need

Sleep Left Turn.
Figure 5-36. Sleep Left Turn.

for pitch changes, smooth, steady back elevator pressure
will maintain constant altitude. However, overbanking
to excessively steep angles without adjusting pitch as the
bank changes occur, requires increasingly stronger elevator
pressure. The loss of vertical lift and increase in wing loading
finally reach a point at which further application of back-
elevator pressure lightens the turn without raising the nose.

How does a pilot recognize overbanking and low pitch
attitude? What should a pilot do to correct them? If a rapid
downward movement of the altimeter needle or vertical speed
needle, together with an increase in airspeed, is observed
despite application of back elevator pressure, the airplane is in
a diving spiral. [Figure 5-37] Immediately shallow the bank
with smooth and coordinated aileron and rudder pressures,
hold or slightly relax elevator pressure and increase the cross-
check of the attitude indicator, altimeter, and VSI. Reduce
power if the airspeed increase is rapid. When the vertical
speed trends upward, the altimeter needle will move slower
as the vertical lift increases. When the elevator is effective in
raising the nose, hold the hank attitude shown on the attitude
indicator and adjust elevator control pressures smoothly for
the nose-high attitude appropriate to the bank maintained.
If pitch control is consistently late on entries to steep turns,
rollout immediately to straight-and-level flight and analyze
possible errors. Practice shallower turns initially and learn the
attitude changes and control responses required, then increase
the banks as a quicker and more accurate cross-check and
control techniques are developed.

The power necessary to maintain constant airspeed increases
as the bank an4 drag increase. With practice, the power
settings appropriate to specific bank attitudes are learned, and
adjustments can be made without undue attention to airspeed
and power instruments. During training in steep turns, as in
any oilier maneuver, attend to the most important tasks first.
Keep the pitch attitude relatively constant, and more time can
be devoted too cross-check and instrument interpretation.

Diving Spiral.
Figure 5-37. Diving Spiral.