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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using Analog Instrumentation

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

On the roll-in, use tile attitude indicator to establish
tile approximate angle of bank, and then check the turn
coordinator's miniature aircraft for a standard rate turn
indication or the aircraft's turn-and-bank indicator. Maintain
the bank for this rate of turn, using the turn coordinator's
miniature aircraft as the primary bank reference and the
attitude indicator as the supporting bank instrument.
[Figure 5-33] Note the exact angle of bank shown on
the banking scale of the attitude indicator when the turn
coordinator indicates a standard rate turn.

During the roll-in, check the altimeter, VSI, and attitude
indicator for the necessary pitch adjustments as the vertical
lift component decreases with an increase in bank. If constant
airspeed is to he maintained, the ASI becomes primary for
power, and the throttle must be adjusted as drag increases. As
the bank is established, trim off the pressures applied during
pitch and power changes.

To recover to straight-and-level flight, apply coordinated
aileron and rudder pressures opposite to the direction of the
turn. Strive for the same rate of roll-out used to roll into the
turn; fewer problems will he encountered in estimating the
lead necessary for roil-out on exact headings, especially on
partial panel maneuvers. Upon initiation of the turn recovery,
the attitude indicator becomes the primary bank instrument.
When the airplane is approximately level, the heading
indicator is the primary bank instrument as in straight-and-
level flight. Pitch, power, and trim adjustments are made as
changes in vertical lift component and airspeed occur. The
ball should he checked throughout the turn, especially if
control pressures are held rather than trimmed off.

Some airplanes are very stable during turns, requiring only
slight trim adjustments that permit hands-off flight while the
airplane remains in the established attitude. Other airplanes
require constant, rapid cross-check and control during turns to
correct overbanking tendencies. Due to the interrelationship
of pitch, bank, and airspeed deviations during turn, cross-
check must be fast in order to prevent an accumulation of

Turns to Predetermined Headings
As long as an airplane is in a coordinated bank, it continues
to turn. Thus, the roil-out to a desired heading must be started
before the heading is reached. The amount of lead varies with
the relationship between the rate of turn, angle of bank, and
rate of recovery. For small heading changes, use a bank angle
that does not exceed the number of degrees to he turned.
Lead the desired heading by one-half the number of degrees
of bank used. For example, if a 10° bank is used during a
change in heading, start the roll-out 5° before reaching the
desired heading. For larger changes in heading, the amount
of lead varies since the angle of bank for a standard rate turn
varies with the true airspeed.

Practice with a lead of one-half the angle of bank until the
precise lead a given technique requires is determined. If
rates of roll-in and roll-out are consistent, the precise amount
of lead suitable to a particular roll-out technique can be

Standard Rate Turn, Constant Airspeed.
Figure 5-33. Standard Rate Turn, Constant Airspeed.