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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using Analog Instrumentation

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Level Off at Descent Airspeed.
Figure 5-32. Level Off at Descent Airspeed.

2. Failure to vary the rate of cross-check during speed,
power, or attitude changes or climb or descent

3. Failure to maintain a new pitch attitude. For example,
raising the nose to the correct climb attitude, and as
the airspeed decreases, either overcontrol and further
increase the pitch attitude, or allow the nose to lower. As
control pressures change with airspeed changes, cross-
check must be increased and pressures readjusted.

4. Failure to trim off pressures. Unless the airplane is
trimmed, there will be difficulty in determining whether
control pressure changes are induced by aerodynamic
changes or by the pilot's own movements.

5. Failure to learn and use proper power settings.

6. Failure to cross-check both airspeed and vertical speed
before making pitch or power adjustments.

7. Improper pitch and power coordination on slow-speed
level off, due to slow cross-check of airspeed and
altimeter indications.

8. Failure to cross-check the VSI against the other pitch
control instruments, resulting in chasing the vertical

9. Failure to note the rate of climb or descent to determine
the lead for level off, resulting in overshooting or
undershooting the desired altitude.

10. Ballooning (allowing the nose to pitch up) on level
off from descents, resulting from failure to maintain
descending attitude with forward-elevator pressure as
power is increased to the level flight cruise setting.

11. Failure to recognize the approaching straight-and-level
flight indications as level off is completed. Maintain
an accelerated cross-check until positively established
in straight-and-level flight.


Standard Rate Turns
A standard rate turn is one in which the pilot will do a
complete 360° circle in two minutes, or 3° per second, A
standard rate turn, although always 3° per second, will
require higher angles of bank as airspeed increases. To enter a
standard rate level turn, apply coordinated aileron and rudder
pressures in the desired direction of turn. Pilots commonly
roll into turns at a much too rapid rate. During initial training
in turns, base control pressures on the rate of cross-check
and interpretation. Maneuvering an airplane faster than
the capability to keep up with the changes in instrument
indications only create the need to make corrections.

A rule of thumb to determine the approximate angle of bank
required for a standard rate turn is to use 15 percent of the
true airspeed. A simple way to determine this amount is to
divide the airspeed by 10 and add one-half the result. For
example, at 100 knots, approximately 15° of bank is required
(100 ÷ 10=10 + 5 = 15); at 120 knots, approximately 18°
of bank is needed for a standard rate turn.