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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using Analog Instrumentation
Straight Climbs and Descents

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Straight Climbs and Descents

For a given power setting and load condition, there is only
one attitude that will give the most efficient rate of climb.
The airspeed and climb power setting that will determine this
climb attitude are given in the performance data found in the
POH/AFM. Details of the technique for entering a climb vary
according to airspeed on entry and the type of climb (constant
airspeed or constant rate) desired. (Heading and trim control
are maintained as discussed in Straight-and-Level Flight.)

To enter a constant-airspeed climb from cruising airspeed,
raise the miniature aircraft to the approximate nose-high
indication for the predetermined climb speed. The attitude
will vary according to the type of airplane. Apply light back-
elevator pressure to initiate and maintain the climb attitude.
The pressures will vary as the airplane decelerates. Power
may be advanced to the climb power setting simultaneously
with the pitch change, or after the pitch change is established
and the airspeed approaches climb speed. If the transition
from level flight to climb is smooth, the VSI will show an
immediate trend upward, continue to move slowly, and
then stop at a rate appropriate to the stabilized airspeed and
attitude. (Primary and supporting instruments for the climb
entry are shown in Figure 5-25.)

Once the airplane stabilizes at a constant airspeed and attitude,
the ASI is primary for pitch and the heading indicator remains
primary for bank. [Figure 5-26] Monitor the tachometer or
manifold pressure gauge as the primary power instrument to
ensure the proper climb power setting is being maintained. If
the climb attitude is correct for die power setting selected, the
airspeed will stabilize at the desired speed. If the airspeed is
low or high, make an appropriately small pitch correction.

To enter a constant airspeed climb, first complete the airspeed
reduction from cruise airspeed to climb speed in straight-
and-level flight. The climb entry is then identical to entry
from cruising airspeed, except that power must he increased
simultaneously to the climb setting as the pitch attitude is
increased. Climb entries on partial panel are more easily
and accurately controlled ii entering the maneuver from
climbing speed.

The technique for entering a constant rate climb is very
similar to that used for entry to a constant-airspeed climb
from climb airspeed. As the power is increased to the
approximate setting for die desired rate, simultaneously
raise the miniature aircraft to the climbing altitude for the
desired airspeed and rate of climb. As the power is in creased,
the ASI is primary for pitch control until the vertical speed
approaches the desired value. As the vertical speed needle
stabilizes, it becomes primary for pitch control and the ASI
becomes primary for power control. [Figure 5-27]

Climb Entry Constant Airspeed Climb.
Figure 5-25. Climb Entry Constant Airspeed Climb.