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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using Analog Instrumentation
Straight-and-Level Flight

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

As thrust decreases, increase the speed of the cross-check
and be ready to apply left rudder, back-elevator, and aileron
control pressure the instant the pitch-and-bank instruments
show a deviation from altitude and heading. As proficiency
is obtained, a pilot learns to cross-check, interpret, and
control the changes with no deviation of heading and altitude.
Assuming smooth air and ideal control technique, as airspeed
decreases, a proportionate increase in airplane pitch attitude
is required to maintain altitude, Similarly, effective torque
control means counteracting yaw with rudder pressure.

As the power is reduced, the altimeter is primary for pitch,
the heading indicator is primary for bank, and the manifold
pressure gauge is momentarily primary for power (at 15"
Hg in this example). Control pressures should he trimmed
off as the airplane decelerates. As the airspeed approaches
the desired airspeed of 100 knots, the manifold pressure
is adjusted to approximately 18" Hg and becomes the
supporting power instrument. The ASI again becomes
primary for power. [Figure 5-24]

Airspeed changes in Straight-and-Level Flight
Practice of airspeed changes in straight-and-level flight provides
an excellent means of developing increased proficiency in all
three basic instrument skills, and brings out some common
errors to be expected during training in straight-and-level flight.
Having learned to control the airplane in a clean configuration

(minimum drag conditions), increase proficiency in cross-
check and control by practicing speed changes while extending
or retracting the flaps and landing gear. While practicing, be
sure to comply with the airspeed limitations specified in the
POH/AFM for gear and flap operation.

Sudden and exaggerated attitude changes may he necessary
in order to maintain straight-and-level flight as the landing
gear is extended and the flaps are lowered in some airplanes.
The nose tends to pitch down with gear extension, and when
flaps are lowered, lift increases momentarily (at partial flap
settings) followed by a marked increase in drag as the flaps
near maximum extension.

Control technique varies according to the lift and drag
characteristics sties of each airplane. Accordingly, knowledge of
the power settings and trim changes associated with different
combinations of airspeed, gear and flap configurations will
reduce instrument cross-check and interpretation problems.

For example, assume that in straight-and-level flight
instruments indicate 120 knots with power at 23" Hg/2,300
revolutions per minute (rpm), gear and flaps up. After
reduction in airspeed, with gear and flaps fully extended,
straight-and-level flight at the same altitude requires 25" Hg
manifold pressure/2,500 rpm. Maximum gear extension
speed is 115 knots; maximum flap extension speed is 105
knots. Airspeed reduction to 95 knots, gear and flaps down,
can he made in the following manner:

Straight-and-Level Flight (Reduced Airspeed Stabilized).
Figure 5-24. Straight-and-Level Flight (Reduced Airspeed Stabilized).