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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Attitude Instrument Flying
Learning Methods

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Turn Coordinator/Turn-and-Slip Indicator
Both of these instruments provide turn information.
[Figure 4-12] The turn coordinator provides both bank rate
and then turn rate once stabilized. The turn-and-slip indicator
provides only turn rate.

Turn Coordinator and Turn-and-Slip Indicator.
Figure 4-12. Turn Coordinator and Turn-and-Slip Indicator.

Power Control
A power change to adjust airspeed may cause movement
around some or all of the aircraft axes. The amount and
direction no of movement depends on how much or how rapidly
the power is changed, whether single-engine or multi engine
airplane or helicopter. The effect on pitch attitude and
airspeed caused by power changes during level flight is
illustrated in Figures 4-13 and 4-14. During or immediately
after adjusting the power control(s), the power instruments
should be crosschecked to see if the power adjustment is as
desired. Whether or not the need for a power adjustment is
indicated by another instrument(s), adjustment is made by
crosschecking the power instruments. Aircraft are powered
by a variety of power plants, each power plant having
certain instruments that indicate the amount of power being
applied to operate the aircraft. During instrument flight,
these instruments must be used to make the required power

As illustrated in Figure 4-15, power indicator instruments

Airspeed Indicator
The airspeed indicator provides an indication of power
best observed initially in level flight where the aircraft
is in balance and trim. If in level flight the airspeed is
increasing, it can generally he assumed that the power has
increased, necessitating the need to adjust power or re-trim
the aircraft.

Engine instruments
Engine instruments, such as the manifold pressure (MP)
indicator, provide an indication of aircraft performance for a
given setting under stable conditions. if the power conditions
are changed, as reflected in the respective engine instrument
readings, there is an affect upon the aircraft performance.
either an increase or decrease of airspeed. When the propeller
rotational speed (revolutions per minute (RPM) as viewed
on a tachometer) is increased or decreased on fixed-pitch
propellers, the performance of the aircraft reflects a gain or
loss of airspeed as well.

Trim Control
Proper trim technique is essential for smooth and accurate
instrument flying and utilizes instrumentation illustrated in
Figure 4-16. The aircraft should he properly trimmed while
executing a maneuver. The degree of flying skill, which
ultimately develops, depends largely upon how well the
aviator learns to keep the aircraft trimmed.

Airplane Trim
An airplane is correctly trimmed when it is maintaining a
desired attitude with all control pressures neutralized. By
relieving all control pressures, it is much easier to maintain
the aircraft at a certain attitude. This allows more time to
devote to the navigation instruments and additional Flight
deck duties.

An Increase in Power Increasing Airspeed Accordingly in Level Flight.
Figure 4-13. An Increase in Power Increasing Airspeed Accordingly in Level Flight.