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Instrument Flying Handbook
Airplane Attitude Instrument Flying
Learning Methods

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Pitch attitude has lowered.
Figure 4-9. Pitch attitude has lowered.

Common errors in pitch attitude control are:

  • Over controlling,
  • Improperly using power, and
  • Failing to adequately cross-check the pitch attitude
    instruments and take corrective action when pitch
    attitude change is needed.

Bank Control
Bank control is controlling the angle made by the wing and
the horizon. After interpreting the bank attitude from the
appropriate instruments, exert the necessary pressures to move
the ailerons and roll the aircraft about the longitudinal axis.
As illustrated in [Figure 4-11], these instruments include:

Attitude Indicator
As previously discussed, the attitude indicator is the only
instrument that portrays both instantly anti directly the actual
flight attitude and is the basic attitude reference.

Pitch attitude has moved higher.
Figure 4-10. Pitch attitude has moved higher.

Heading Indicator
The heading indicator supplies the pertinent bank and
heading information and is considered a primary instrument
for bank.

Magnetic Compass
The magnetic compass provides beading information and is
considered a bank instrument when used with the heading
indicator. Care should be exercised when using the magnetic
compass as it is affected by acceleration, deceleration in flight
caused by turbulence, climbing, descending, power changes,
and airspeed adjustments. Additionally, the magnetic compass
indication will lead and lag in its reading depending upon
the direction of turn. As a result, acceptance of its indication
should be considered with other instruments that indicate turn
information. These include the already mentioned attitude
and heading indicators as well as the turn-and-slip indicator
and turn coordinator.

Rank Instruments.
Figure 4-11. Rank Instruments.