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Instrument Flying Handbook
Using an Electronic Flight Display
Scanning Techniques

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Scan left to the airspeed tape and verify that the airspeed is
as desired, then return back to the center of the display. Scan
right to the altimeter tape, Verify that the desired altitude is
being maintained. If it is not, make the appropriate pitch
change and verify the result. Once the desired altitude has
been verified, return to the center of the display. Transition
down to the heading indicator to verify the desired heading.
When the heading has been confirmed, scan to the center of
the display.

It is also important to include the engine indications in the
scan. Individualized scan methods may require adjustment
if engine indications are presented on a separate PFD. A
modified radial scan can be performed to incorporate these
instruments into the scan pattern. Another critical component
to include in the scan is the moving map display located on
the MFD. To aid in situational awareness and facilitate a more
centralized scan, a smaller inset map can be displayed in the
lower left corner of the PFD screen.

Trend Indicators
One improvement the glass panel displays brought to the
general aviation industry is the trend vector. Trend vectors
are magenta lines that appear on the airspeed and altitude
tapes as well as on the turn rate indicator. These magenta
lines indicate what the associated airspeed, altitude, or
heading will be in 6 seconds [Figure 4-36] if the current
rate is maintained. The trend vector is not displayed if there
is no change to the associated tape and the value remains
constant [Figure 4-37] or if there is a failure in some portion
of the system that would preclude the vector from being

Airspeed Trend indicators
Figure 4-36. Airspeed Trend indicators

Trend vectors are a very good source of information for the
new instrument flight rules (IFR) pilot. Pilots who utilize
good scanning techniques can pick up subtle deviations
from desired parameters and make small correction to the

Airspeed Indicators With No Trend Present.
Figure 4-37. Airspeed Indicators With No Trend Present.

desired attitude. As soon as a trend is indicated on the PFD,
a conscientious pilot can adjust to regain the desired attitude.
[Figure 4-38]

Altimeter Trend indicators.
Figure 4-38. Altimeter Trend indicators

Another advancement in attitude instrument flying is the turn
rate trend indicator. As in the cases of airspeed, altitude, and
vertical speed trend indicators, the turn rate trend indicator
depicts what the aircraft's heading will be in 6 seconds. While
examining the top of the heading indicator, notice two white
lines on the exterior of the compass rose. [Figure 4-39] These
two tick marks located on both sides of the top of the heading
indicator show half-standard rate turns as well as standard
rate turns.