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Instrument Flying Handbook
Using an Electronic Flight Display
Scanning Techniques

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Instrument Cross-Check
The first fundamental skill is cross-checking (also call
"scanning"). Cross-checking is the continuous observation of
the indications on the control and performance instruments.
It is imperative that the new instrument pilot learns to observe
and interpret the various indications in order to control
the attitude and performance of the aircraft, Due to the
configuration of some glass panel displays such as the Garmin
G1000, one or more of the performance instruments may be
located on an MFD installed to the right of the pilot's direct
forward line of sight. [Figure 4-33]

How a pilot gathers the necessary information to control the
aircraft varies by individual pilot. No specific method of
cross-checking (scanning) is recommended; the pilot must
learn to determine which instruments give the most pertinent
information for any particular phase of a maneuver. With
practice, the pilot is able to observe the primary instruments
quickly and cross-check with the supporting instruments
in order to maintain the desired attitude. At no time during
instrument flying should the pilot stop cross-checking the

Scanning Techniques

Since most of the primary and supporting aircraft attitude
information is displayed on the PFD, standard scanning
techniques can be utilized. It is important to remember
to include the stand-by flight instruments as well as the
engine indications in the scan. Due to the size of the
attitude instrument display, scanning techniques have been
simplified because the attitude indicator is never out of
peripheral view.

Selected Radial Cross-Check
The radial scan is designed so that your eyes remain on the
attitude indicator 80-90 percent of the time. The remainder
of the time is spent transitioning from the attitude indicator
to the various other flight instruments. [Figure 4-34]

The radial scan pattern works well for scanning the PFD. The
close proximity of the instrument tape displays necessitates
very little eye movement in order to focus in on the desired
instrument. While the eyes move in any direction, the
extended artificial horizon line allows the pilot to keep the
pitch attitude in his or her peripheral vision. This extended
horizon line greatly reduces the tendency to fixate on one
instrument and completely ignore all others. Because of
the size of the attitude display, some portion of the attitude
indicator is always visible while viewing another instrument
display on the PFD

altitude and vertical speed tapes
Figure 4-33, Note that the altitude and vertical speed tapes are slightly to the right of the pilot's direct forward line of sight.