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Instrument Flying Handbook
Using an Electronic Flight Display
Fundamental Skills of Attitude Instrument Flying

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Instrument Flying
Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency
Operations

The instrument cross-check necessitates utilizing these
supporting instruments to better manage altitude control.
The VSI and trend tape provide the pilot with information
regarding the direction and rate of altitude deviations. The
pilot is thus able to make correction to the pitch attitude
before a large deviation in altitude occurs. The airspeed
indicator depicts an increase if the pitch attitude is lowered.
Conversely, when the pitch attitude increases, the pilot should
note a decrease in the airspeed.

Primary Bank
When flying in instrument meteorological conditions, pilots
maintain preplanned or assigned headings. With this in
mind, the primary instrument for bank angle is the heading
indicator, Heading changes are displayed instantaneously.
The heading indicator is the only instrument that displays the
current magnetic heading, provided that it is matched to the
magnetic compass with all deviation adjustments accounted
for. [Figure 4-32]

There are supporting instruments associated with bank as
well. The turn rate trend indicator shows the pilot when the
aircraft is changing heading. The magnetic compass is also
useful for maintaining a heading; however, it is influenced
by several error's in various phases of flight.

Primary Yaw
The slip/skid indicator is the primary instrument for yaw.
It is the only instrument that can indicate if the aircraft is
moving through the air with the longitudinal axis of the
aircraft aligned with the relative wind,

Primary Power
The primary power instrument for straight-and-level flight is
the airspeed indicator. The main focus of power is to maintain
a desired airspeed during level flight. No other instrument
delivers instantaneous indication.

Learning the primary and supporting instruments for
each variable is the key to successfully mastering attitude
instrument flying. At no point does the primary and supporting
method devalue the importance of the attitude indicator or the
power instruments. All instruments (control, performance,
primary, and supporting) must be utilized collectively.

Fundamental Skills of Attitude Instrument Flying

When first learning attitude instrument flying, it is very
important that two major skills be mastered. Instrument cross-
check and instrument interpretation comprise the foundation
for safely maneuvering the aircraft by reference to instruments
alone. Without mastering both skills, the pilot will not be able
to maintain precise control of aircraft attitude.

Primary Bank
Figure 4-32. Primary Bank
 

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