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Instrument Flying Handbook
Using an Electronic Flight Display
Attitude Instrument Flying Primary and Supporting Method

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Bank Control
Precise bank control can he developed utilizing the roll
pointer in conjunction with the roll index displayed on the
attitude indicator. The roll index is sectioned by hash marks at
0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 45°, 60° and the horizon line which depicts
90° of bank. [Figure 4-29] The addition of the 45° hash mark
is an improvement over conventional attitude indicators.
In addition to the roll index, the instrument pilot utilizes
the turn rate indicator to maintain the aircraft in a standard
rate turn (3° per second). Most instrument maneuvers can
be done comfortably, safely, and efficiently by utilizing a
standard rate turn.

Bank Control Index Lines.
Figure 4-29. Bank Control Index Lines.

Power Control
The power instruments indicate how much power is being
generated by the engine. They are not affected by turbulence,
improper trim, or control pressures. All changes in power
should be made with reference to power instruments and
cross-checked on performance instruments.

Power control needs to be learned from the beginning of
flight training. Attitude instrument flying demands increased
precision when it comes to power control. As experience
increases, pilots begin to know approximately how much
change in throttle position is required to produce the desired
change in airspeed. Different aircraft demand differing
amounts of throttle change to produce specific performance.
It is imperative that the pilot make the specific changes on
the power instruments and allow the performance to stabilize.
Avoid the tendency to over control.

One common error encountered with glass panel displays
is associated with the precision of the digital readouts.
This precision causes pilots to focus too much attention on
establishing the exact power setting.

Control and power instruments are the foundation for precise
attitude instrument flying. The keys to attitude instrument
flying are establishing the desired aircraft attitude on the
attitude indicator and selecting the desired engine output on
the power instruments. Cross-checking is the vital ingredient
in maintaining precise attitude instrument flight.

Attitude Instrument Flying Primary and
Supporting Method

The second method for performing attitude instrument
flight is a direct extension of the control/power method.
By utilizing the primary and supporting flight instruments
in conjunction with the control and power instruments, the
pilot can precisely maintain aircraft attitude. This method
utilizes the same instruments as the control/power method;
however, it focuses more on the instruments that depict the
most accurate indication for the aspect of the aircraft attitude
being controlled. The four key elements (pitch, hank, roll,
and trim) are discussed in detail.

Similar to the control/power method, all changes to aircraft
attitude need to he made using the attitude indicator and the
power instruments (tachometer, manifold pressure gauge,
etc.). The following explains how each component of the
aircraft attitude is monitored for performance.

Pitch Control
The pitch of the aircraft refers to the angle between the
longitudinal axis of the aircraft and the natural horizon. When
flying in instrument meteorological conditions, the natural
horizon is unavailable for reference, and an artificial horizon
is utilized in its place. [Figure 4-30] The only instrument
capable of depicting the aircraft attitude is the attitude
indicator displayed on the PFD. The attitude and heading
reference system (AHRS) is the engine that drives the attitude
display. The AHRS unit is capable of precisely tracking
minute changes in the pitch, bank, and yaw axes, thereby
making the PFD very accurate and reliable. The AHRS unit
determines the angle between the aircraft's longitudinal
axis and the horizon line on initialization. There is no need
or means for the pilot to adjust the position of the yellow
chevron, which represents the nose of the aircraft.