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Instrument Flying Handbook
Using an Electronic Flight Display
Learning Methods Control and Performance

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

The Four-Step Process Used to Change Attitude
in order to change the attitude of the aircraft, the pilot must
make the proper changes to the pitch, bank, or power settings
of the aircraft Four steps (establish, trim, cross-check, and
adjust) have been developed in order to aid in the process.

Any time the attitude of the aircraft requires changing, the
pilot must adjust the pitch and/or bank in conjunction with
power to establish the desired performance. The changes
in pitch and bank require the pilot to reference the attitude
indicator in order to make precise changes. Power changes
should he verified on the tachometer, manifold pressure
gauge, etc. To ease the workload, the pilot should become
familiar with the approximate pitch and power changes
necessary to establish a specified attitude.

Another important step in attitude instrument flying is
trimming the aircraft. Trim is utilized to eliminate the need
to apply force to the control yoke in order to maintain the
desired attitude. When the aircraft is trimmed appropriately,
the pilot is able to relax pressure on the control yoke and
momentarily divert attention to another task at hand without
deviating from the desired attitude. Trimming the aircraft is
very important, and poor trim is one of the most common
errors instructors note in instrument students.

Once the initial attitude changes have been made, the pilot
should verify the performance of the aircraft, Cross-checking
the control and performance instruments requires the pilot
to visually scan the instruments as well as interpret the
indications. All the instruments must be utilized collectively
in order to develop a full understanding of the aircraft attitude.
During the cross-check, the pilot needs to determine the
magnitude of any deviations and determine how much of a
change is required. All changes are then made based on the
control instrument indications.

The final step in the process is adjusting for any deviations
that have been noted during the cross-check. Adjustments
should be made in small increments. The attitude indicator
and the power instruments are graduated in small increments
to allow for precise changes to be made. The pitch should be
made in reference to bar widths on the miniature airplane.
The hank angle can be changed in reference to the roll scale
and the power can he adjusted in reference to the tachometer,
manifold pressure gauge, etc.

By utilizing these four steps, pilots can better manage the
attitude of their aircraft. One common error associated with
this process is making a larger than necessary change when
a deviation is noted. Pilots need to become familiar with the
aircraft and learn how great a change in attitude is needed to
produce the desired performance.

Applying the Four-Step Process
In attitude instrument flight, the four-step process is used to
control pitch attitude, bank attitude, and power application of
the aircraft. The PFD displays indications precisely enough
that a pilot can apply control more accurately.

Pitch Control
The pitch control is indicated on the attitude indicator which
spans the full width of the PFD. Due to the increased size of
the display, minute changes in pitch can be made and corrected
for. The pitch scale on the attitude indicator is graduated in
5 degree increments, which allow the pilot to make correction
with precision to approximately 1/2 degree. The miniature
airplane utilized to represent the aircraft in conventional
attitude indicators is replaced in glass panel displays by a
yellow chevron. [Figure 4-28] Representing the nose of the
aircraft, the point of the chevron affords the pilot a much
more precise indication of the degree of pitch and allows
the pilot to make small, precise changes should the desired
aircraft performance change. When the desired performance
is not being achieved, precise pitch changes should be made
by referencing the point of the yellow chevron.

chevron’s relationship
Figure 4-28. The chevron's relationship to the horizon line
indicates the pitch of the aircraft.