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Instrument Flying Handbook
Flight Instruments
Required Navigation Instrument System Inspection

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

After Engine Start

1. When the master switch is turned on, listen to the
gyros as they spin up. Any hesitation or unusual noises
should be investigated before flight.

2. Suction gauge or electrical indicators: Check the
source of power for the gyro instruments. The suction
developed should be appropriate for the instruments
in that particular aircraft. If the gyros are electrically
driven, check the generators and inverters for proper

3. Magnetic compass: Check the card for freedom of
movement and confirm the bowl is full of fluid.
Determine compass accuracy by comparing the
indicated heading against a known heading (runway
heading) while the airplane is stopped or taxiing
straight. Remote indicating compasses should also he
checked against known headings. Note the compass
card correction for the takeoff runway heading.

4. Heading indicator: Allow 5 minutes after starting
engines for the gyro to spin up. Before taxiing, or
while taxiing straight, set the heading indicator to
correspond with the magnetic compass heading. A
slaved gyrocompass should be checked for slaving
action and its indications compared with those of the
magnetic compass. if an electronic flight instrument
system is installed, consult the flight manual for proper

5. Attitude indicator: Allow the same time as noted
above for gyros to spin up. if the horizon bar erects
to the horizontal position and remains at the correct
position for the attitude of the airplane, or if it begins
to vibrate after this attitude is reached and then slowly
stops vibrating altogether, the instrument is operating
proper1y. F an electronic flight instrument system
is installed, consult the flight manual for proper

6. Altimeter: With the altimeter set to the current reported
altimeter setting, note any variation between the
known field elevation and the altimeter indication. If
the indication is not within 75 feet of field elevation,
the accuracy of the altimeter is questionable and
the problem should he referred to a repair station
for evaluation and possible correction, Because the
elevation of the ramp or hangar area might differ
significantly from field elevation, recheck when in
the run-up area if the error exceeds 75 feet. When
no altimeter setting is available, set the altimeter
to the published field elevation during the preflight
instrument check.

7, VSI: The instrument should read zero. If it does not,
tap the panel gently. If an electronic flight instrument
system is installed, consult the flight manual for proper

8. Engine instruments: Check for proper readings.

9. Radio equipment: Check for proper operation and set
as desired.

10. Deicing and anti-icing equipment: Check operation.

Taxiing and Takeoff

1. Turn coordinator: During taxi turns, check the
miniature aircraft for proper turn indications. The ball
0" slip/skid should move freely. The ball or slip/skid
indicator should move opposite to the direction of
turns. The turn instrument should indicate the direction
of the turn. While taxiing straight, the miniature
aircraft (as appropriate) should be level.

2. Heading indicator: Before takeoff, recheck the heading
indicator, if the magnetic compass and deviation card
are accurate, the heading indicator should show the
known taxiway or runway direction when the airplane
is aligned with them (within 50).

3, Attitude indicator: If the horizon bar fails to remain
in the horizontal position during straight taxiing, or
tips in excess of 5° during taxi turns, the instrument is
unreliable. Adjust the miniature aircraft with reference
to the horizon bar for the particular airplane while on
the ground. For some tricycle-gear airplanes, a slightly
nose-low attitude on the ground gives a level flight
attitude at normal cruising speed.

Engine Shut Down
When shutting down the engine, note any abnormal
instrument indications.