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Instrument Flying Handbook
Flight Instruments
Primary Right Display (PFD)

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Two Primary Flight Displays
Figure 3-45. Two Primary Flight Displays (Avidyne on the Left and Garmin on the Right).

realistic visualization imagery
Figure 3-46. The benefits of realistic visualization imagery, as
illustrated by Synthetic Vision manufactured by Chelton Flight
Systems. The system provides the pilot a realistic, real—time,
three- dimensional depiction of the aircraft and its relation to terrain around it.

Multi-Function Display (MFD)
In addition to a PFD directly in front of the pilot, an MFD
that provides the display of information in addition to primary
flight information is used within the flight deck. (Figure 3-47)
information such as a moving map, approach charts, Terrain
Awareness Warning System, and weather depiction can all
be illustrated on the MFD. For additional redundancy both
the PFD and MFD can display all critical information that
the other normally presents thereby providing redundancy
(using a reversionary mode) not normally found in general
aviation flight decks.

Advanced Technology Systems
Although standards for Automatic Dependent Surveillance
(Broadcast) (ADS-B) are still under continuing development,
the concept is simple; aircraft broadcast a message on
a regular basis, which includes their position (such as
latitude, longitude and altitude), velocity, and possibly
other information. Other aircraft or systems can receive this
information for use in a wide variety of applications. The
key to ADS-B is GPS, which provides three-dimensional
position of the aircraft.

As an simplified example, consider air-traffic radar. The radar
measures the range and bearing of an aircraft. The hearing is
measured by the position of the rotating radar antenna when it
receives a reply to its interrogation from the aircraft, and the
range by the time it takes for the radar to receive the reply.

An ADS-B based system, on the other hand, would listen
for position reports broadcast by the aircraft. [Figure 3-48]
These position reports are based on satellite navigation
systems. These transmissions include the transmitting
aircraft's position which the receiving aircraft processes into
usable pilot information. The accuracy of the system is now
determined by the accuracy of the navigation system, not
measurement errors. Furthermore the accuracy is unaffected
by the range to the aircraft as in the case of radar. With radar,
detecting aircraft speed changes require tracking the data and
changes can only he detected over a period of several position
updates. With ADS-B, speed changes are broadcast almost
instantaneously and received by properly equipped aircraft.