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Instrument Flying Handbook
Flight Instruments
Flight Management Systems

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

S-TECMeggit Corporation integrated Autopilot
Figure 3-41. The S-TECMeggit Corporation integrated Autopilot installed in the Cirrus.

Determining whether a design is position based and/or rate
based lies primarily within the type of sensors used. In order
for an autopilot to possess the capability of controlling an
aircraft's altitude (i.e., roll and pitch), that system must be
provided with constant information on the actual attitude
of that aircraft. This is accomplished by the use of several
different types of gyroscopic sensors. Some sensors are
designed to indicate the aircraft's attitude in the form of
position in relation to the horizon, while others indicate rate
(position change over time).

Rate-based systems use the turn-and-bank sensor. For the
autopilot system. The autopilot uses rate information on
two of the aircraft's three axes: movement about the vertical
axis (heading change or yaw) and about the longitudinal
axis (roll). This combined information from a single sensor
is made possible by the 30° offset in the gyro's axis to the
longitudinal axis.

Other systems use a combination of both position and Tate-
based information to benefit from the attributes of both systems
while newer autopilots are digital. Figure 3-42 illustrates an
autopilot by Century.

Figure 3-43 is a diagram layout of a rate-based autopilot by
5-Tec, which permits the purchaser to add modular capability
from basic wing leveling to increased capability.

An Autopilot by Century.
Figure 3-42. An Autopilot by Century.

Flight Management Systems (FMS)

In the mid 1970s, visionaries in the avionics industry such
as Hubert Naimer of Universal, and followed by others such
as Ed King, Jr., were looking to advance the technology of
aircraft navigation. As early as 1976, Naimer had a vision
of a "Master Navigation System" that would accept inputs
from a variety of different types of sensors on an aircraft
and automatically provide guidance throughout all phases
of flight.

At that time aircraft navigated over relatively short distances
with radio systems, principally VOR or ADF. For long-range
flight inertial navigation systems (INS), Omega, Doppler,
and Loran were in common use. Short-range radio systems
usually did not provide area navigation capability. Long-
range systems were only capable of en route point-to-point
navigation between manually entered waypoints described
as longitude and latitude coordinates, with typical systems
containing a limited number of waypoints.