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Instrument Flying Handbook
Aerodynamic Factors

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Antenna Icing
Because of their small size and shape, antennas that do lint lay
flush with the aircraft's skin tend to accumulate ice rapidly.
Furthermore, they often are devoid of internal anti-icing
01' deicing capability for protection. During flight in icing
conditions, ice accumulations on an antenna may cause it to
begin to vibrate or cause radio signals to become distorted
and it may cause damage to the antenna, if a frozen antenna
breaks off, it can damage other areas of the aircraft in addition
to causing a communication or navigation system failure,

Ice contaminated aircraft have been involved in many
accidents. Takeoff accidents have usually been due to failure
to deice or anti-ice critical surfaces properly on the ground.
Proper deicing and anti-icing procedures are addressed in
two other pilot guides, Advisory Circular (AC) 120-58, Pilot
Guide: Large Aircraft Ground Deicing and AC 135-17, Pilot
Guide: Small Aircraft Ground Deicing.

The pilot of an aircraft, which is not certificated or equipped
for flight in icing conditions, should avoid all icing conditions.
The aforementioned guides provide direction on how to do
this, and on how to exit icing conditions promptly and safety
should they be inadvertently encountered.

The pilot of an aircraft, which is certificated for flight in
icing conditions can safely operate in the conditions for
which the aircraft was evaluated during the certification
process but should never become complacent about icing.
Even short encounters with small amounts of rough icing
can be very hazardous. The pilot should he familiar with all
information in the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) or Pilot's
Operating Handbook (POR) concerning flight in icing
conditions and follow it carefully. Of particular importance
are proper operation of ice protection systems and any
airspeed minimums to be observed during or after flight
in icing conditions. There are some icing conditions for
which no aircraft is evaluated in the certification process,
such as super-cooled large drops (SLD). These subfreezing
water droplets, with diameters greater than 50 microns,
occur within or below clouds and sustained flight in these
conditions can be very hazardous. The pilot should be familiar
with any information in the AFM or POH relating to these
conditions, including aircraft-specific cues for recognizing
these hazardous conditions within clouds.

The information in this chapter is an overview of the hazards
of aircraft icing. For more detailed information refer to AC
91-74, Pilot Guide: Flight in icing Conditions, AC 91-5lA,
Effect of Icing on Aircraft Control and Airplane Deice and
Anti-ice Systems, AC 20-73A, Aircraft Ice Protection and
AC 23.143-1, Ice Contaminated Tailplane Stall (ICTS).