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Instrument Flying Handbook
IFR Flight
En Route Procedures

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Departures From Airports Without an Operating
Control Tower

When departing from airports that have neither an operating
tower nor an FSS, a pilot should telephone the flight plan to the
nearest ATC facility at least 30 minutes before the estimated
departure time. If weather conditions permit, depart VFR and
request IFR clearance as soon as radio contact is established
with ATC.

If weather conditions make it undesirable to fly VFR, telephone
clearance request. In this case, the controller would probably
issue a short-range clearance pending establishment of radio
contact, and might restrict the departure time to a certain period.
For example:

"Clearance void if not off by 0900."

This would authorize departure within the allotted period and
permit a pilot to proceed in accordance with the clearance. In
the absence of any specific departure instructions, a pilot would
be expected to proceed on course via the most direct route.

En Route Procedures

Procedures en route will vary according to the proposed route,
the traffic environment, and the ATC facilities controlling
the flight. Some IFR flights are under radar surveillance and
controlled from departure to arrival, and others rely entirely
on pilot navigation

Where ATC has no jurisdiction, it does not issue an IFR
clearance. It has no control over the flight, nor does the pilot
have any assurance of separation from other traffic.

ATC Reports
All pilots are required to report unforecasted weather conditions
or other information related to safety of flight to ATC. The
pilot in command of each aircraft operated in controlled
airspace under IFR shall report as soon as practical to ATC any
malfunctions of navigational, approach, or communication
equipment occurring in flight:

1. Loss of VOR, tactical air navigation (TACAN) or
automated direction finder (ADF) receiver capability.

2. Complete or partial loss of instrument landing system
(ILS) receiver capability.

3. Impairment of air to ground communications

The pilot in command shall include within the report
(1) Aircraft identification, (2) Equipment affected, (3) Degree
to which the pilot to operate under IFR within the ATC
system is impaired, and (4) Nature and extent of assistance
desired from ATC.

Position Reports
Position reports are required over each compulsory reporting
point (shown on the chart as a solid triangle) along the route
being flown regardless of altitude, including those with
a VFR-on-top clearance. Along direct routes, reports are
required of all IFR flights over each point used to define
the route of flight. Reports at reporting points (shown as an
open triangle) are made only when requested by ATC. A
pilot should discontinue position reporting over designated
reporting points when informed by ATC that the aircraft
is in RADAR CONTACT." Position reporting should be
resumed when ATC advises "RADAR CONTACT LOST"

Position reports should include the following items:

1. Identification

2. Position

3. Time

4. Altitude or flight level (include actual altitude or flight
level when operating on a clearance specifying VFR-

5. Type of flight plan (not required in IFR position reports
made directly to ARTCCs or approach control)

6. ETA and name of next reporting point

7. The name only of the next succeeding reporting point
along the route of flight

8. Pertinent remarks

En route position reports are submitted normally to
the ARTCC controllers via direct controller to pilot
communications channels, using the appropriate ARTCC
frequencies listed on the en route chart.

Whenever an initial contact with a controller is to be followed
by a position report, the name of the reporting point should
be included in the call-up. This alerts the controller that such
information is forthcoming, For example:

"Atlanta Center, Cessna 1230 Alpha at JAILS

"Cessna 1230 Alpha Atlanta Center."

"Atlanta Center, Cessna 1230 Alpha at JAILS
intersection, 5,000, estimating Monroeville at

Additional Reports
In addition to required position reports, the following reports
should be made to ATC without a specific request.