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Instrument Flying Handbook
IFR Flight
Instrument Weather flying

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

When a missed approach procedure is initiated, a climb pitch
attitude should be established while setting climb power.
Configuring the aircraft for climb, turn to the appropriate
heading, advise ATC that a missed approach is being
executed, and request further clearances.

If the missed approach is initiated prior to reaching the
missed approach point (MAP), unless otherwise cleared by
ATC, continue to fly the IAP as specified on the approach
chart. Fly to the MAP at or above the MDA or DA/DH before
beginning a turn.

If visual reference is lost while circling-to-land from an
instrument approach, execute the appropriate missed
approach procedure. Make the initial climbing turn toward
the landing runway and then maneuver to intercept and fly
the missed approach course.

Pilots should immediately execute the missed approach

1. Whenever the requirements for operating below DA/
DH or MDA are not met when the aircraft is below
MDA, or upon arrival at the MAP and at any time
after that until touchdown;

2. Whenever an identifiable part of the airport is not visible
to the pilot during a circling maneuver at or above MDA; or

3. When so directed by ATC.

According to 14 CFR part 91, no pilot may land when the flight
visibility is less than the visibility prescribed in the standard
IAP being used. ATC will provide the pilot with the current
visibility reports appropriate to the runway in use. This may be
in the form of prevailing visibility, runway visual value (RVV),
or runway visual range (RVR). However, only the pilot can
determine if the flight visibility meets the landing requirements
indicated on the approach chart. If the flight visibility meets
the minimum prescribed for the approach, then the approach
may be continued to a landing. If the flight visibility is less than
that prescribed for the approach, then the pilot must execute a
missed approach, regardless of the reported visibility.

The landing minimums published on IAP charts are based on
full operation of all components and visual aids associated
with the instrument approach chart being used. Higher
minimums are required with inoperative components or
visual aids. For example, if the ALSF-1 approach lighting
system were inoperative, the visibility minimums for an ILS

would need to be increased by one-quarter mile. If more
than one component is inoperative, each minimum is raised
to the highest minimum required by any single component
that is inoperative. ILS glide slope inoperative minimums
are published on instrument approach charts as localizer
minimums. Consult the "Inoperative Components or Visual
Aids Table" (printed on the inside front cover of each TPP),
for a complete description of the effect of inoperative
components on approach minimums.

Instrument Weather flying

Flying Experience
The more experience a pilot has in VFR and IFR flight,
the more proficient a pilot becomes. VFR experience can
be gained by flying in terminal areas with high traffic
activity. This type of flying forces the pitot to polish the
skill of dividing his or her attention between aircraft control,
navigation, communications, and other flight deck duties.
IFR experience can be gained through night flying which
also promotes both instrument proficiency and confidence.
The progression from flying at night under clear, moonlit
conditions to flying at night without moonlight, natural
horizon, or familiar landmarks teaches a pilot to trust the
aircraft instruments with minimal dependence upon what
can be seen outside the aircraft, It is a pilot's decision to
proceed with an IFR flight or to wait for more acceptable
weather conditions.

Regency of Experience
Currency as an instrument pilot is an equally important
consideration. No person may act as pilot in command of an
aircraft under IFR or in weather conditions less than VFR
minimums unless he or she has met the requirements of part
91. Remember, these are minimum requirements.

Airborne Equipment and Ground Faculties
Regulations specify minimum equipment for filing an IFR
flight plan. It is the pilot's responsibility to determine the
adequacy of the aircraft and navigation/communication
(NAV/COM) equipment for the proposed IFR flight.
Performance limitations, accessories, and general condition
of the equipment are directly related to the weather, route,
altitude, and ground facilities pertinent to the flight, as well
as to the flight deck workload.

Weather Conditions
In addition to the weather conditions that might affect a
VFR flight, an IFR pilot must consider the effects of other
weather phenomena (e.g., thunderstorms, turbulence, icing,
and visibility).