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Instrument Flying Handbook
IFR Flight
Approaches

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Instrument Flying
Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency
Operations

Surveillance Approach (ASR) is one in which a controller
provides navigational guidance in azimuth only.

The controller furnishes the pilot with headings to fly to
align the aircraft with the extended centerline of the landing
runway. Since the radar information used for a surveillance
approach is considerably less precise than that used for a
precision approach, the accuracy of the approach will not
be as great and higher minimums will apply. Guidance in
elevation is not possible but the pilot will be advised when to
commence descent to the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA)
or, if appropriate, to an intermediate step-down fix Minimum
Crossing Altitude and subsequently to the prescribed MDA.
in addition, the pilot will be advised of the location of the
Missed Approach Point (MAP) prescribed for the procedure
and the aircraft's position each mile on final from the runway,
airport or heliport or MAP, as appropriate.

If requested by the pilot, recommended altitudes will be
issued at each mile, based on the descent gradient established
for the procedure, down to the last mile that is at or above
the MDA. Normally, navigational guidance will be provided
until the aircraft reaches the MAP.

Radar service is automatically terminated at the completion
of a radar approach.

No-Gyro Approach is available to a pilot under radar control
who experiences circumstances wherein the directional gyro or
other stabilized compass is inoperative or inaccurate. When this
occurs, the pilot should so advise ATC and request a no-gyro
vector or approach. The pilot of an aircraft not equipped with a
directional gyro or other stabilized compass who desires radar
handling may also request a no-gyro vector or approach. The
pilot should make all turns at standard rate and should execute
the turn immediately upon receipt of instructions. For example,
"TURN RIGHT," "STOP TURN." When a surveillance or
precision approach is made, the pilot will be advised after the
aircraft has been turned onto final approach to make turns at
half standard rate.

Radar Monitoring of Instrument Approaches
PAR facilities operated by the FAA and the military services
at some joint use (civil and military) and military installations

monitor aircraft on instrument approaches and issue radar
advisories to the pilot when weather is below VFR minimums
(1,000 and 3), at night, or when requested by a pilot. This
service is provided only when the PAR Final Approach
Course coincides with the final approach of the navigational
aid and only during the operational hours of the PAR. The
radar advisories serve only as a secondary aid since the pilot
has selected the navigational aid as the primary aid for the
approach.

Prior to starting final approach. the pilot will be advised of
the frequency on which the advisories will be transmitted.
If, for any reason, radar advisories cannot be furnished, the
pilot will be so advised.

Advisory information, derived from radar observations,
includes information on:

1. Passing the final approach fix inbound (nonprecision
approach) or passing the outer marker or fix used
in lieu of the outer marker inbound (precision
approach).
2. Trend advisories with respect to elevation and/or
azimuth radar position and movement will be
provided.

3. If, after repeated advisories, the aircraft proceeds
outside the PAR safety limit or if a radical deviation is
observed, the pilot will be advised to execute a missed
approach unless the prescribed visual reference with
the surface is established.

Radar service is automatically terminated upon completion
of the approach. [Figure 10-11]

Timed Approaches From a Holding Fix
Timed approaches from a holding fix are conducted when
many aircraft are waiting for an approach clearance. Although
the controller will not specifically state "timed approaches
are in progress," the assigning of a time to depart the FAF
inbound (nonprecision approach), or the outer marker or
fix used in lieu of the outer marker inbound (precision
approach), indicates that timed approach procedures are
being utilized.

 

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