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Instrument Flying Handbook
IFR Flight

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

6. After passing the final approach fix inbound, the
pilot is expected to proceed direct to the airport and
complete the approach, or to execute the published
missed approach procedure.

7. Radar service is automatically terminated when the
landing is completed or when the pilot is instructed to
change to advisory frequency at uncontrolled airports,
whichever occurs first.

Radar Approaches
With a radar approach, the pilot receives course and altitude
guidance from a controller who monitors the progress of the
flight with radar. This is an option should the pilot experience
an emergency or distress situation.

The only airborne radio equipment required for radar
approaches are a functioning radio transmitter and receiver.
The radar controller vectors the aircraft to align it with the
runway centerline. The controller continues the vectors to
keep the aircraft on course until the pilot can complete the
approach and landing by visual reference to the surface.
There are two types of radar approaches: Precision (PAR)
and Surveillance (ASR).

A radar approach may be given to any aircraft upon request
and may be offered to pilots of aircraft in distress or to expedite
traffic; however, an ASR might not be approved unless
there is an ATC operational requirement, or in an unusual
or emergency situation. Acceptance of a PAR or ASR by a
pilot does not waive the prescribed weather minimums for the
airport or for the particular aircraft operation concerned. The
decision to make a radar approach when the reported weather
is below the established minimums rests with the pilot.

PAR and ASR minimums are published on separate pages
in the FAA Terminal Procedures Publication (TPP).
Figure 10-10.

Precision Approach (PAR) is one in which a controller
provides highly accurate navigational guidance in azimuth
and elevation to a pilot.

The controller gives the pilot headings to fly that direct the
aircraft to, and keep the aircraft aligned with, the extended
centerline of the landing runway. The pilot is told to anticipate
glide path interception approximately 10 to 30 seconds before
it occurs and when to start descent. The published decision
height (DH) will be given only if the pilot requests it. If
the aircraft is observed to deviate above or below the glide
path, the pilot is given the relative amount of deviation by
use of terms "slightly" or "well" and is expected to adjust
the aircraft's rate of descent/ascent to return to the glide
path. Trend information is also issued with respect to the
elevation of the aircraft and may be modified by the terms
"rapidly" and "slowly"; e.g., "well above glide path, coming
down rapidly."

Range from touchdown is given at least once each mile. If
an aircraft is observed by the controller to proceed outside
of specified safety zone limits in azimuth and/or elevation
and continue to operate outside these prescribed limits, the
pilot will be directed to execute a missed approach or to fly a
specified course unless the pilot has the runway environment
(runway, approach lights, etc.) in sight. Navigational
guidance in azimuth and elevation is provided to the pilot
until the aircraft reaches the published DH. Advisory course
and the controller furnishes glide path information
until the aircraft passes over the landing threshold. At this
point the pilot is advised of any deviation from the runway
centerline. Radar service is automatically terminated upon
completion of the approach.

Radar Instrument Approach Minimums for Troy, AL.
Figure 10-10. Radar Instrument Approach Minimums for Troy, AL.