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Instrument Flying Handbook
IFR Flight

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Approach to Airport Without an Operating Control Tower
Figure 10-8 shows an approach procedure at an airport
without an operating control tower. When approaching
such a facility, the pilot should monitor the AWOS/ASOS
if available for the latest weather conditions. When direct
communication between the pilot and controller is no longer
required, the ARTCC or approach controller will issue a
clearance for an instrument approach and advise "change to
advisory frequency approved." When the aircraft arrives on
a "cruise" clearance, ATC will not issue further clearance
for approach and landing.

If an approach clearance is required, ATC will authorize
the pilot to execute his or her choice of standard instrument
approach (if more than one is published for the airport)
with the phrase "Cleared for the approach" and the
communications frequency change required, if any. From
this point on, there will be no contact with ATC. The pilot
is responsible for closing the IFR flight plan before landing,
if in VFR conditions, or by telephone after landing.

Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, a pilot is expected to
execute the complete IAP shown on the chart.

Approach to Airport With an Operating Tower,
With No Approach Control

When an aircraft approaches an airport with an operating
control tower, but no approach control, ATC will issue
a clearance to an approach/outer fix with the appropriate
information and instructions as follows:

I. Name of the fix

2. Altitude to be maintained

3. Holding information and expected approach clearance
time, if appropriate

4. instructions regarding further communications,
a) facility to be contacted
b) time and place of contact
c) frequency/ies to be used

If ATIS is available, a pilot should monitor that frequency
for information such as ceiling, visibility, wind direction and
velocity, altimeter setting, instrument approach, and runways
in use prior to initial radio contact with the tower. If ATIS is
not available, ATC will provide weather information from
the nearest reporting station.

Approach to an Airport With an Operating Tower,
With an Approach Control

Where radar is approved for approach control service, it is
used to provide vectors in conjunction with published IAPs.
Radar vectors can provide course guidance and expedite
traffic to the final approach course of any established IAP.
Figure 10-9 shows an IAP chart with maximum ATC
facilities available.

Approach control facilities that provide this radar service
operate in the following manner:

1. Arriving aircraft are either cleared to an outer fix most
appropriate to the route being flown with vertical
separation and. if required, given holding information;

2. When radar hand-offs are effected between ARTCC
and approach control, or between two approach
control facilities, aircraft are cleared to the airport, or
to a fix so located that the hand-off will be completed
prior to the time the aircraft reaches the fix.

a) When the radar hand-offs are utilized, successive
arriving flights may be handed off to approach
control with radar separation in lieu of vertical

b) After hand-off to approach control, an aircraft
is vectored to the appropriate final approach

3. Radar vectors and altitude/flight levels are issued
as required for spacing and separating aircraft; do
not deviate from the headings issued by approach

4. Aircraft are normally informed when it becomes
necessary to be vectored across the final approach
course for spacing or other reasons. If approach
course crossing is imminent and the pilot has not
been informed that the aircraft will be vectored across
the final approach course, the pilot should query the
controller. The pilot is not expected to turn inbound on
the final approach course unless an approach clearance
has been issued. This clearance is normally issued with
the final vector for interception of the final approach
course, and the vector enables the pilot to establish the
aircraft on the final approach course prior to reaching
the final approach fix.

5. Once the aircraft is established inbound on the final
approach course, radar separation is maintained with
other aircraft, and the pilot is expected to complete
the approach using the NAVAID designated in the
clearance (ILS, VOR, NDB, GPS, etc.) as the primary
means of navigation.