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Instrument Flying Handbook
IFR Flight

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Holding-Outbound Timing.
Figure 10-7. Holding-Outbound Timing.


Compliance With Published Standard Instrument
Approach Procedures

Compliance with the approach procedures shown on the
approach charts provides necessary navigation guidance
information for alignment with the final approach courses,
as well as obstruction clearance. Under certain conditions, a
course reversal maneuver or procedure turn may be necessary.
However, this procedure is not authorized when:

1. The symbol 'NoPT" appears on the approach course
on the plan view of the approach chart.

2. Radar vectoring is provided to the final approach

3. A holding pattern is published in lieu of a procedure

4. Executing a timed approach from a holding fix.
Instrument Approaches to Civil Airports

Unless otherwise authorized, when an instrument letdown to
an airport is necessary, the pilot should use a standard IAP
prescribed for that airport. IAPs are depicted on IAP charts
and are found in the TPP.

ATC approach procedures depend upon the facilities available
at the terminal area, the type of instrument approach executed,
and the existing weather conditions. The ATC facilities,
navigation aids (NAVAIDs), and associated frequencies
appropriate to each standard instrument approach are given
on the approach chart, Individual charts are published for
standard approach procedures associated with the following
types of facilities:

1. Nondirectional beacon (NDB)

2. Very-high frequency omnirange (VOR)

3. Very-high frequency omnirange with distance
measuring equipment (VORTAC or VOR/DME)

4. Localizer (LOC)

5. Instrument landing system (ILS)

6. Localizer-type directional aid (LDA)

7. Simplified directional facility (SDF)

8. Area navigation (RNAV)

9. Global positioning system (GPS)

An IAP can be flown in one of two ways: as a full approach
or with the assistance of radar vectors. When the IAP is flown
as a full approach, pilots conduct their own navigation using
the routes and altitudes depicted on the instrument approach
chart. A full approach allows the pilot to transition from
the en route phase, to the instrument approach, and then to
a landing with minimal assistance from ATC. This type of
procedure may be requested by the pilot but is most often
used in areas without radar coverage. A full approach also
provides the pilot with a means of completing an instrument
approach in the event of a communications failure.

When an approach is flown with the assistance of radar vectors,
ATC provides guidance in the form of headings and altitudes
which position the aircraft to intercept the final approach.
From this point, the pilot resumes navigation, intercepts the
final approach course, and completes the approach using the
IAP chart. This is often a more expedient method of flying
the approach, as opposed to the full approach, and allows
ATC to sequence arriving traffic. A pilot operating in radar
contact can generally expect the assistance of radar vectors
to the final approach course.