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Instrument Flying Handbook
Human factors
Models for Practicing ADM

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Models for Practicing ADM
Two models for practicing ADM are presented below.

Perceive, Process, Perform
The Perceive—Process—Perform (3P) model for ADM offers
a simple, practical, and systematic approach that can he
used during all phases of flight. [Figure 1-12] To use it,
the pilot will:

  • Perceive the given set of circumstances for a flight;
  • Process by evaluating their impact on flight safety;
  • Perform by implementing the best course of action.

The 3P Model for Aeronautical Decision-Making.
Figure 1-12. The 3P Model for Aeronautical Decision-Making.

In the first step, the goal is to develop situational awareness
by perceiving hazards, which are present events, objects, or
circumstances that could contribute to an undesired future
event. In this step, the pilot will systematically identify and
list hazards associated with all aspects of the flight: pilot,
aircraft, environment, and external pressures. It is important
to consider how individual hazards might combine, Consider,
for example, the hazard that arises when a new instrument
pilot with no experience in actual instrument conditions wants
to make a cross-country flight to an airport with low ceilings
in order to attend an import ant business meeting.

In the second step, the goal is to process this information
to determine whether the identified hazards constitute risk,
which is defined as the future impact of a hazard that is not
controlled or eliminated. The degree of risk posed by a given
hazard can be measured in terms of exposure (number of
people or resources affected), severity (extent of possible
loss), and probability (the likelihood that a hazard will cause
a loss). If the hazard is low ceilings, for example, the level
of risk depends on a number of other factors, such as pilot
training and experience, aircraft equipment and fuel capacity,
and others.

In the third step, the goal is to perform by taking action to
eliminate hazards or mitigate risk, and then continuously
evaluate the outcome of this action. With the example of low
ceilings at destination, for instance, the pilot can perform
good ADM by selecting a suitable alternate, knowing where
to find good weather, and carrying sufficient fuel to reach
it. This course of action would mitigate the risk. The pilot
also has the option to eliminate it entirely by waiting for
better weather.

Once the pilot has completed the 3P decision process and
selected a course of action, the process begins anew because
now the set of circumstances brought about by the course of
action requires analysis. The decision-making process is a
continuous loop of perceiving, processing and performing.

The DECIDE Model
Another structured approach to ADM is the DECIDE model,
which is a six-step process intended to provide a logical
way of approaching decision-making. As in the 3P model,
the elements of the DECIDE model represent a continuous
loop process to assist a pilot in the decision-making
required when faced with a situational change that requires
judgment. [Figure 1-13(7 The model is primarily focused
on the intellectual component, but can have an impact on
the motivational component of judgment. as well. If a pilot
continually uses the DECIDE Model in all decision-making,
it becomes natural and results in better decisions being made
tinder all types of situations. The steps in this approach are
listed in Figure l-13C.

In conventional decision-making, the need for a decision is
triggered by recognition that something has changed or an
expected change did not occur. Recognition of the change,
or lack of change, is a vital step in any decision making
process. Not noticing change in a situation can lead directly
to a mishap. [Figure 1-13A] The change indicates that an
appropriate response or action is necessary in order to modify
the situation (or, at least, one of the elements that comprise it)
and bring about a desired new situation. Therefore, situational
awareness is the key to successful and safe decision making.
At this point in the process, the pilot is faced with a need to
evaluate the entire range of possible responses to the detected
change and to determine the best course of action.