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Instrument Flying Handbook
Human factors
Crew Resource Management (CRM)
and Single Pilot Resource Management (SRM)

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

In the first situation, the decision may be automatic: fly the
airplane to a safe landing. Since automatic decision-making
is based upon education and experience, an inexperienced
pilot may react improperly to the situation which results in
an inadequate action. To mitigate improper decision-making,
immediate action items from emergency procedures should
be learned. Training, education, and mentorship are all key
factors in honing automatic decision-making skills.

In the second situation, if the pilot has a flashlight on board, it
can he used for illumination, although its light may degrade
night vision. After changing the appropriate transponder
code, and making calls in the blind, awareness of present
location becomes imperative, especially if the pilot must
execute a controlled descent to VMC conditions. Proper
preflight planning conducted before departure and constant
awareness of location provide an element of both comfort
(reduces stress) and information from which the pilot can
draw credible information.

in both cases, the outcomes can be successful through
systems understanding, emergency procedures training, and
correctly analyzing the risks associated with each course
of action.

Crew Resource Management (CRM)
and Single Pilot Resource Management

Crew resource management (CRM) and single-pilot resource
management (SRM) is the ability for the crew or pilot to
manage all resources effectively to ensure (he outcome of the
flight is successful. In general aviation, SRM will be most
often used and its focus is on the single-pilot operation. SRM
integrates the following:

  • Situational Awareness
  • Flight Deck Resource Management
  • Task Management

Aeronautical Decision-making (ADM) and Risk

SRM recognizes the need to seek proper information from
these sources to make a valid decision, For instance, the
pilot may have to request assistance from others and be
assertive to resolve situations. Pilots should understand the
need to seek information from other sources until they have
the proper information to make the best decision. Once a
pilot has gathered all pertinent information arid made the
appropriate decision, the pilot needs to perform an assessment
of the action taken.

Situational & Awareness
Situational awareness is the accurate perception of
operational and environmental factors that affect the flight. it
is a logical analysis based upon the machine, external support,
environment, and the pilot. ft is knowing what is going on.

Flight Deck Resource Management
CRM is the effective use of all available resources: human,
equipment, and information. It focuses on communication
skills, teamwork, task allocation, and decision-making.
While CRM often concentrates on pilots who operate in
crew environments, the elements and concepts also apply to
single-pilot operations.

Human Resources
Human resources include everyone routinely working with the
pilot to ensure flight safety. These people include, but are not
limited to: weather briefers, flight line personnel, maintenance
personnel, crew members, pilots, and air traffic personnel.
Pilots need to effectively communicate with these people.
This is accomplished by using the key components of the
communication process: inquiry, advocacy, and assertion.

Pilots must recognize the need to seek enough information
from these resources to make a valid decision. After the
necessary information has been gathered, the pilot's decision
must be passed on to those conceited, such as air traffic
controllers, crew members, and passengers. The pilot may
have to request assistance from others and be assertive to
safely resolve some situations.

Equipment in many of today's aircraft includes automated
flight and navigation systems. These automatic systems, while
providing relief from many routine flight deck tasks, present a
different set of problems for pilots. The automation intended
to reduce pilot workload essentially removes the pilot from the
process of managing the aircraft, thereby reducing situational
awareness and leading to complacency. Information from
these systems needs to be continually monitored to ensure
proper situational awareness. Pilots should he thoroughly
familiar with the operation of and information provided by
all systems used. It is essential that pilots he aware not only
of equipment capabilities, but also equipment limitations in
order to manage those systems effectively and safely.