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Instrument Flying Handbook
Table of Contents

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Instrument Flying
Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency
Operations

Chapter 2
Aerodynamic Factors 2-1
Introduction 2-1
The Wing 2-2
Review of Basic Aerodynamics 2-2
The Four Forces 2-2
Lift 2-2
Weight 2-3
Thrust 2-3
Drag 2-3
Newton's First .Law, the Law of Inertia 2-4
Newton's Second Law, the Law of Momentum 2-4
Newton's Third Law, the Law of Reaction 2-4
Atmosphere 2-4
Layers of the Atmosphere 2-5
International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) 2-5
Pressure Altitude 2-5
Density Altitude 2-5
Lift 2-6
Pitch/Power Relationship 2-6
Drag Curves 2-6
Regions of Command 2-7
Control Characteristics 2-7
Speed Stability 2-7
Normal Command 2-7
Reversed Command 2-8
Trim 2-S
Slow-Speed Plight 2-8
Small Airplanes 2-9
Large Airplanes 2-9
Climbs 2-10
Acceleration in Cruise Flight 2-10
Turns 2-10
Rate of Turn 2-lU
Radius of Turn 2-il
Coordination of Rudder and Aileron Controls 2-11
Load Factor 2-1 1
Icing 2-12
Types of Icing 2-13
Structural Icing 2-13
induction icing 2-13
Clear ice 2-13
Rime ice 2-14
Mixed ice 2-14
General Effects of Icing on Airfoils 2-14
Piper PA-34-200T (Des Moines, Iowa) 2-15
Tailplane Stall Symptoms 2-16
Propeller Icing 2-16
Effects of Icing on Critical Aircraft Systems 2-16
Flight Instruments 2-16
Stall Wanting Systems 2-16
Windshields 2-16
Antenna Icing 2-17
Summary 2-17

Chapter 3
Flight Instruments 3-1
Introduction 3-1
Pitot-static Systems 3-2
Static Pressure 3-2
Blockage Considerations 3-2
Indications of Pitot Tube Blockage 3-3
Indications from Static Port Blockage 3-3
Effects of Flight Conditions 3-3
Pitot/Static Instruments 3-3
Sensitive Altimeter 3-3
Principle of Operation 3-3
Altimeter Errors 3-4
Cold Weather Altimeter Errors 3-5
ICAO Cold Temperature Error Table 3-5
Nonstandard Pressure on an Altimeter 3-6
Altimeter Enhancements (Encoding) 3-7
Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) .3-7
Vertical Speed Indicator (VS1) 3-8
Dynamic Pressure Type Instruments 3-8
Airspeed Indicator (AS!) 3-8
Types of Airspeed 3-9
Airspeed Color Codes 3-10
Magnetism 3-10
The Basic Aviation Magnetic Compass 3-Il
Magnetic Compass Overview 3-I I
Magnetic Compass Induced Errors 3-12
The Vertical Card Magnetic Compass 3-14
The Flux Gate Compass System 3-14
Remote Indicating Compass 3-15
Gyroscopic Systems 3-16
Power Sources 3-16
Pneumatic Systems 3-16
Vacuum Pump Systems 3-17
Electrical Systems 3-18
Gyroscopic instruments 3-18
Attitude Indicators 3-18
Heading indicators 3-19
Turn Indicators 3-20
Turn-and-Slip indicator 3-20
Turn Coordinator 3-21
Flight Support Systems 3-22
Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) ... 3-22
Air Data Computer (ADC) 3-22
Analog Pictorial Displays 3-22
Horizontal Situation Indicator (LIST) 3-22

 

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