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Instrument Flying Handbook

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Although the regulations specify minimum requirements,
the amount of instructional time needed is determined not
by the regulation, but by the individual's ability to achieve
a satisfactory level of proficiency. A professional pilot with
diversified flying experience may easily attain a satisfactory
level of proficiency in the minimum time required by
regulation. Your own dine requirements will depend upon a
variety of factors, including previous flying experience, rate
of learning, basic ability, frequency of flight training, type of
aircraft flown, quality of ground school training, and quality
of flight instruction, to name a few The total instructional
time you will need, the scheduling of such lime, is up to the
individual most qualified to judge your proficiency—the
instructor who supervises your progress and endorses your
record of flight training.

You can accelerate and enrich much of your training by
informal study. An increasing number of visual aids and
programmed instrument courses is available. The best course
is one that includes a well~integrated flight and ground school
curriculum, The sequential nature of the learning process
requires that each element of knowledge and skill be learned
and applied in the right manner at the right time.

Part of your instrument training may utilize a flight simulator,
flight training device, or a personal computer-based aviation
training device (PCATD). This ground-based flight training
equipment is a valuable tool for developing your instrument
cross-check and learning procedures, such as intercepting and
tracking, holding patterns, and instrument approaches. Once
these concepts are fully understood, you can then continue
with inflight training and refine these techniques for full
transference of your new knowledge and skills.

Holding the instrument rating does not necessarily make you a
competent all-weather pilot. The rating certifies only that you
have complied with the minimum experience requirements,
that you can plan and execute a flight under IFR, that you
can execute basic instrument maneuvers, and that you have
shown acceptable skill and judgment in performing these
activities. Your instrument rating permits you to fly into
instrument weather conditions with no previous instrument
weather experience. Your instrument rating is issued on
the assumption that you have the good judgment to avoid
situations beyond your capabilities. The instrument training
program you undertake should help you to develop not only
essential flying skills but also the judgment necessary to use
the skills within your own limits,

Regardless of the method of training selected, the curriculum
in Appendix B, Instrument Training Lesson Guide, provides
guidance as to the minimum training required for the addition
of an instrument rating to a private or commercial pilot

Maintaining the Instrument Rating
Once you hold the instrument rating, you may not act as pilot
in-command under IFR or in weather conditions less than the
minimums prescribed for VER. unless you meet the recent
flight experience requirements outlined in 14 CFR part 61.
These procedures must be accomplished within the preceding
6 months and include six instrument approaches, holding
procedures, and intercepting and tracking courses through the
use of navigation systems. if you do not meet the experience
requirements during these 6 months, you have another 6
months to meet these minimums. If the requirements are
still not met, you must pass an instrument proficiency check,
which is an inflight evaluation by a qualified instrument
flight instructor using tasks outlined in the instrument rating
practical test standard (PTS).

The instrument currency requirements must be accomplished
under actual or simulated instrument conditions. You may log
instrument flight, time during the time for which you control
the aircraft solely by reference to the instruments. This can
be accomplished by wearing a view~limiting device, such as
a hood, flying an approved flight-training device, or flying
in actual IMC.

It takes only one harrowing experience to clarify the
distinction between minimum practical knowledge and a
thorough understanding of how to apply the procedures and
techniques used in instrument flight. Your instrument training
is never complete; it is adequate when you have absorbed
every foreseeable detail of knowledge and skill to ensure a
solution will be available if and when you need it.