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Airplane Flying Handbook
Glossary

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

Glossary

INTEGRAL FUEL TANK—
A portion of the aircraft structure,
usually a wing, which is sealed off and
used as a fuel tank. When a wing is
used as an integral fuel tank, it is
called a "wet wing."

INTERCOOLER—A device used to
reduce the temperature of the
compressed air before it enters the
fuel metering device. The resulting
cooler air has a higher density, which
permits the engine to be operated with
a higher power setting.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION
ENGINES—An engine that produces
power as a result of expanding hot
gases from the combustion of fuel and
air within the engine itself. A steam
engine where coal is burned to heat up
water inside the engine is an example
of an external combustion engine.

INTERSTAGE TURBINE
TEMPERATURE (ITT)—The temperature
of the gases between the high
pressure and low pressure turbines.

INVERTER—An electrical device
that changes DC to AC power.

ISA (INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD ATMOSPHERE)—
Standard atmospheric conditions
consisting of a temperature of 59°F
(15°C), and a barometric pressure of
29.92 in. Hg. (1013.2 mb) at sea level.
ISA values can be calculated for
various altitudes using a standard
lapse rate of approximately 2°C per
1,000 feet.

JET POWERED AIRPLANE—An
aircraft powered by a turbojet or
turbofan engine.
KINESTHESIA—The sensing of
movements by feel.

LATERAL AXIS—An imaginary
line passing through the center of
gravity of an airplane and extending
across the airplane from wingtip
to wingtip.

LATERAL STABILITY
(ROLLING)—The stability about the
longitudinal axis of an aircraft.
Rolling stability or the ability of an
airplane to return to level flight due to
a disturbance that causes one of the
wings to drop.

LEAD-ACID BATTERY—
A commonly used secondary cell
having lead as its negative plate and
lead peroxide as its positive plate.
Sulfuric acid and water serve as the
electrolyte.

LEADING EDGE DEVICES—
High lift devices which are found on
the leading edge of the airfoil. The
most common types are fixed slots,
movable slats, and leading edge flaps.

LEADING EDGE—The part of an
airfoil that meets the airflow first.

LEADING EDGE FLAP—
A portion of the leading edge of an
airplane wing that folds downward to
increase the camber, lift, and drag of
the wing. The leading-edge flaps are
extended for takeoffs and landings to
increase the amount of aerodynamic
lift that is produced at any given
airspeed.

LICENSED EMPTY WEIGHT—
The empty weight that consists of the
airframe, engine(s), unusable fuel,
and undrainable oil plus standard and
optional equipment as specified in the
equipment list. Some manufacturers
used this term prior to GAMA
standardization.

LIFT—One of the four main forces
acting on an aircraft. On a fixed-wing
aircraft, an upward force created by
the effect of airflow as it passes over
and under the wing.

LIFT COEFFICIENT— A coefficient
representing the lift of a given
airfoil. Lift coefficient is obtained by
dividing the lift by the free-stream
dynamic pressure and the representative
area under consideration.

LIFT/DRAG RATIO—
The efficiency of an airfoil section. It
is the ratio of the coefficient of lift to
the coefficient of drag for any given
angle of attack.

LIFT-OFF—The act of becoming
airborne as a result of the wings
lifting the airplane off the ground, or
the pilot rotating the nose up,
increasing the angle of attack to start a
climb.

LIMIT LOAD FACTOR—Amount
of stress, or load factor, that an aircraft
can withstand before structural
damage or failure occurs.

LOAD FACTOR—The ratio of the
load supported by the airplane's wings
to the actual weight of the aircraft and
its contents. Also referred to as
G-loading.

LONGITUDINAL AXIS—
An imaginary line through an aircraft
from nose to tail, passing through its
center of gravity. The longitudinal
axis is also called the roll axis of the
aircraft. Movement of the ailerons
rotates an airplane about its
longitudinal axis.

LONGITUDINAL STABILITY
(PITCHING)—Stability about the
lateral axis. A desirable characteristic
of an airplane whereby it tends to
return to its trimmed angle of attack
after displacement.

MACH—Speed relative to the speed
of sound. Mach 1 is the speed of
sound.

MACH BUFFET—
Airflow separation behind a
shock-wave pressure barrier caused
by airflow over flight surfaces
exceeding the speed of sound.

MACH COMPENSATING
DEVICE—A device to alert the pilot
of inadvertent excursions beyond its
certified maximum operating speed.

MACH CRITICAL—The MACH
speed at which some portion of the
airflow over the wing first equals
MACH 1.0. This is also the speed at
which a shock wave first appears on
the airplane.

 

G-9