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Airplane Flying Handbook

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures




GROUND TRACK—The aircraft's
path over the ground when in flight.

The speed that gives the greatest
margin between the high and low
mach speed buffets.

An inherent quality of rotating bodies,
which causes an applied force to be
manifested 90º in the direction of
rotation from the point where the
force is applied.

engine by rotating the propeller by

HEADING—The direction in which
the nose of the aircraft is pointing
during flight.

HEADING BUG—A marker on the
heading indicator that can be rotated
to a specific heading for reference
purposes, or to command an autopilot
to fly that heading.

An instrument which senses airplane
movement and displays heading based
on a 360º azimuth, with the final zero
omitted. The heading indicator, also
called a directional gyro, is fundamentally
a mechanical instrument
designed to facilitate the use of the
magnetic compass. The heading indicator
is not affected by the forces that
make the magnetic compass difficult
to interpret.

component of atmospheric winds that
acts opposite to the aircraft's flightpath.

AIRCRAFT—An aircraft with an
engine of more than 200 horsepower.
HORIZON—The line of sight
boundary between the earth and the

The term, originated by inventor
James Watt, means the amount of
work a horse could do in one second.
One horsepower equals 550
foot-pounds per second, or 33,000
foot-pounds per minute.

HOT START—In gas turbine
engines, a start which occurs with
normal engine rotation, but exhaust
temperature exceeds prescribed
limits. This is usually caused by an
excessively rich mixture in the
combustor. The fuel to the engine
must be terminated immediately to
prevent engine damage.

HUNG START—In gas turbine
engines, a condition of normal light
off but with r.p.m. remaining at some
low value rather than increasing to the
normal idle r.p.m. This is often the
result of insufficient power to the
engine from the starter. In the event of
a hung start, the engine should be shut

HYDRAULICS—The branch of
science that deals with the
transmission of power by incompressible
fluids under pressure.

that exists when landing on a surface
with standing water deeper than the
tread depth of the tires. When the
brakes are applied, there is a
possibility that the brake will lock up
and the tire will ride on the surface of
the water, much like a water ski.
When the tires are hydroplaning,
directional control and braking action
are virtually impossible. An effective
anti-skid system can minimize the
effects of hydroplaning.

HYPOXIA—A lack of sufficient
oxygen reaching the body tissues.

RULES)—Rules that govern the
procedure for conducting flight in
weather conditions below VFR
weather minimums. The term "IFR"
also is used to define weather
conditions and the type of flight plan
under which an aircraft is operating.

IGNITER PLUGS—The electrical
device used to provide the spark for
starting combustion in a turbine
engine. Some igniters resemble spark
plugs, while others, called glow plugs,
have a coil of resistance wire that
glows red hot when electrical current
flows through the coil.

IMPACT ICE—Ice that forms on the
wings and control surfaces or on the
carburetor heat valve, the walls of the
air scoop, or the carburetor units
during flight. Impact ice collecting on
the metering elements of the
carburetor may upset fuel metering or
stop carburetor fuel flow.

INCLINOMETER—An instrument
consisting of a curved glass tube,
housing a glass ball, and damped with
a fluid similar to kerosene. It may be
used to indicate inclination, as a level,
or, as used in the turn indicators, to
show the relationship between gravity
and centrifugal force in a turn.

The direct instrument reading
obtained from the airspeed indicator,
uncorrected for variations in atmospheric
density, installation error, or
instrument error. Manufacturers use
this airspeed as the basis for determining
airplane performance. Takeoff,
landing, and stall speeds listed in the
AFM or POH are indicated airspeeds
and do not normally vary with altitude
or temperature.

The altitude read directly from the
altimeter (uncorrected) when it is set
to the current altimeter setting.

INDUCED DRAG—That part of
total drag which is created by the
production of lift. Induced drag
increases with a decrease in airspeed.

part of the engine that distributes
intake air to the cylinders.
INERTIA—The opposition which a
body offers to a change of motion.

INITIAL CLIMB—This stage of the
climb begins when the airplane leaves
the ground, and a pitch attitude has
been established to climb away from
the takeoff area.