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Airplane Flying Handbook
Glossary

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

Glossary

FORWARD SLIP—A slip in which
the airplane's direction of motion continues
the same as before the slip was
begun. In a forward slip, the airplane's
longitudinal axis is at an angle to its
flightpath.

FREE POWER TURBINE
ENGINE—A turboprop engine
where the gas producer spool is on a
separate shaft from the output shaft.
The free power turbine spins
independently of the gas producer and
drives the output shaft.

FRICTION DRAG—The part of
parasitic drag on a body resulting
from viscous shearing stresses over its
wetted surface.

FRISE-TYPE AILERON—Aileron
having the nose portion projecting
ahead of the hinge line. When the
trailing edge of the aileron moves up,
the nose projects below the wing's
lower surface and produces some
parasite drag, decreasing the amount
of adverse yaw.

FUEL CONTROL UNIT—
The fuel-metering device used on a
turbine engine that meters the proper
quantity of fuel to be fed into the
burners of the engine. It integrates the
parameters of inlet air temperature,
compressor speed, compressor
discharge pressure, and exhaust gas
temperature with the position of the
cockpit power control lever.

FUEL EFFICIENCY—Defined as
the amount of fuel used to produce a
specific thrust or horsepower divided
by the total potential power contained
in the same amount of fuel.

FUEL HEATERS—A radiator-like
device which has fuel passing through
the core. A heat exchange occurs to
keep the fuel temperature above the
freezing point of water so that
entrained water does not form ice
crystals, which could block fuel flow.

FUEL INJECTION—
A fuel metering system used on some
aircraft reciprocating engines in
which a constant flow of fuel is fed to
injection nozzles in the heads of all
cylinders just outside of the intake
valve. It differs from sequential fuel
injection in which a timed charge of
high-pressure fuel is sprayed directly
into the combustion chamber of the
cylinder.

FUEL LOAD—The expendable part
of the load of the airplane. It includes
only usable fuel, not fuel required to
fill the lines or that which remains
trapped in the tank sumps.

FUEL TANK SUMP—A sampling
port in the lowest part of the fuel tank
that the pilot can utilize to check for
contaminants in the fuel.

FUSELAGE—The section of the
airplane that consists of the cabin
and/or cockpit, containing seats for
the occupants and the controls for the
airplane.

GAS GENERATOR—The basic
power producing portion of a gas
turbine engine and excluding such
sections as the inlet duct, the
fan section, free power turbines,
and tailpipe. Each manufacturer
designates what is included as the gas
generator, but generally consists of
the compressor, diffuser, combustor,
and turbine.

GAS TURBINE ENGINE—A form
of heat engine in which burning fuel
adds energy to compressed air and
accelerates the air through the
remainder of the engine. Some of the
energy is extracted to turn the air
compressor, and the remainder
accelerates the air to produce thrust.
Some of this energy can be converted
into torque to drive a propeller or a
system of rotors for a helicopter.

GLIDE RATIO—The ratio between
distance traveled and altitude lost
during non-powered flight.

GLIDEPATH—The path of an
aircraft relative to the ground while
approaching a landing.

GLOBAL POSITION SYSTEM
(GPS)—A satellite-based radio positioning,
navigation, and time-transfer
system.

GO-AROUND—
Terminating a landing approach.

GOVERNING RANGE—The range
of pitch a propeller governor can
control during flight.

GOVERNOR—A control which
limits the maximum rotational speed
of a device.

GROSS WEIGHT—
The total weight of a fully loaded
aircraft including the fuel, oil, crew,
passengers, and cargo.

GROUND ADJUSTABLE TRIM
TAB—A metal trim tab on a control
surface that is not adjustable in flight.
Bent in one direction or another while
on the ground to apply trim forces to
the control surface.

GROUND EFFECT—A condition
of improved performance encountered
when an airplane is operating
very close to the ground. When an
airplane's wing is under the influence
of ground effect, there is a reduction
in upwash, downwash, and wingtip
vortices. As a result of the reduced
wingtip vortices, induced drag is
reduced.

GROUND IDLE—Gas turbine
engine speed usually 60-70 percent of
the maximum r.p.m. range, used as a
minimum thrust setting for ground
operations.

GROUND LOOP—A sharp, uncontrolled
change of direction of an
airplane on the ground.

GROUND POWER UNIT (GPU)—
A type of small gas turbine whose
purpose is to provide electrical power,
and/or air pressure for starting aircraft
engines. Aground unit is connected to
the aircraft when needed. Similar to
an aircraft-installed auxiliary power
unit.

GROUNDSPEED (GS)—The actual
speed of the airplane over the ground.
It is true airspeed adjusted for
wind. Groundspeed decreases with a
headwind, and increases with
a tailwind.

 

G-7