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Airplane Flying Handbook
Glossary

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

Glossary

DYNAMIC HYDROPLANING—A
condition that exists when landing on
a surface with standing water deeper
than the tread depth of the tires. When
the brakes are applied, there is a
possibility that the brake will lock up
and the tire will ride on the surface of
the water, much like a water ski.
When the tires are hydroplaning,
directional control and braking action
are virtually impossible. An effective
anti-skid system can minimize the
effects of hydroplaning.

DYNAMIC STABILITY—
The property of an aircraft that causes
it, when disturbed from straight and level
flight, to develop forces or
moments that restore the original
condition of straight and level.

ELECTRICAL BUS—
See BUS BAR.

ELECTROHYDRAULIC—
Hydraulic control which is electrically
actuated.

ELEVATOR—
The horizontal, movable primary
control surface in the tail section, or
empennage, of an airplane. The
elevator is hinged to the trailing edge
of the fixed horizontal stabilizer.

EMERGENCY LOCATOR
TRANSMITTER—A small, selfcontained
radio transmitter that will
automatically, upon the impact of a
crash, transmit an emergency signal
on 121.5, 243.0, or 406.0 MHz.

EMPENNAGE—The section of the
airplane that consists of the vertical
stabilizer, the horizontal stabilizer,
and the associated control surfaces.

ENGINE PRESSURE RATIO
(EPR)—The ratio of turbine
discharge pressure divided by
compressor inlet pressure that is used
as an indication of the amount of
thrust being developed by a turbine
engine.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS—
In an aircraft, the systems, including
the supplemental oxygen systems, air
conditioning systems, heaters, and
pressurization systems, which make it
possible for an occupant to function at
high altitude.

EQUILIBRIUM—A condition that
exists within a body when the sum of
the moments of all of the forces acting
on the body is equal to zero. In
aerodynamics, equilibrium is when all
opposing forces acting on an aircraft
are balanced (steady, unaccelerated
flight conditions).

EQUIVALENT SHAFT
HORSEPOWER (ESHP)—
A measurement of the total horsepower
of a turboprop engine, including
that provided by jet thrust.

EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE
(EGT)—The temperature of the
exhaust gases as they leave the
cylinders of a reciprocating engine or
the turbine section of a turbine engine.

EXHAUST MANIFOLD—The part
of the engine that collects exhaust
gases leaving the cylinders.

EXHAUST—The rear opening of a
turbine engine exhaust duct. The
nozzle acts as an orifice, the size of
which determines the density and
velocity of the gases as they emerge
from the engine.

FALSE HORIZON—An optical
illusion where the pilot confuses a row
of lights along a road or other straight
line as the horizon.

FALSE START—
See HUNG START.

FEATHERING PROPELLER
(FEATHERED)—A controllable
pitch propeller with a pitch range
sufficient to allow the blades to be
turned parallel to the line of flight to
reduce drag and prevent further
damage to an engine that has been
shut down after a malfunction.

FIXATION—
A psychological condition where the
pilot fixes attention on a single source
of information and ignores all
other sources.

FIXED SHAFT TURBOPROP
ENGINE—A turboprop engine
where the gas producer spool is
directly connected to the output shaft.

FIXED-PITCH PROPELLERS—
Propellers with fixed blade angles.
Fixed-pitch propellers are designed as
climb propellers, cruise propellers, or
standard propellers.

FLAPS—Hinged portion of the
trailing edge between the ailerons and
fuselage. In some aircraft, ailerons
and flaps are interconnected to
produce full-span "flaperons." In
either case, flaps change the lift and
drag on the wing.

FLAT PITCH—
A propeller configuration when the
blade chord is aligned with the direction
of rotation.

FLICKER VERTIGO—
A disorientating condition caused
from flickering light off the blades of
the propeller.

FLIGHT DIRECTOR—An automatic
flight control system in which
the commands needed to fly the airplane
are electronically computed and
displayed on a flight instrument. The
commands are followed by the human
pilot with manual control inputs or, in
the case of an autopilot system, sent to
servos that move the flight controls.

FLIGHT IDLE—Engine speed,
usually in the 70-80 percent range, for
minimum flight thrust.

FLOATING—A condition when
landing where the airplane does not
settle to the runway due to excessive
airspeed.

FORCE (F)—The energy applied to
an object that attempts to cause the
object to change its direction, speed,
or motion. In aerodynamics, it is
expressed as F, T (thrust), L (lift), W
(weight), or D (drag), usually in
pounds.

FORM DRAG—The part of parasite
drag on a body resulting from the
integrated effect of the static pressure
acting normal to its surface resolved
in the drag direction.

 

G-6